Whoʼs the biggest fish in the pond? The story of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in an Australian golf course lake, with deliberations on this speciesʼ longevity in low salinity habitats
Keywords:Australia, Carcharhinidae, elasmobranchs, euryhalinity, floods, low salinity habitats
This article addresses the history of a resident population of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in an isolated stagnant body of water in subtropical Australia. From 1996 to 2013, six bull sharks were landlocked in a golf course lake near Brisbane. The adjacent Logan and Albert rivers trapped sharks due to major floodings. When floodwaters receded, these sharks remained in the lake, which is normally isolated from the riverʼs main channel. While this event was extensively reported in the media and recieved much public attention, it has not been investigated in depth, yet it provides an opportunity for insights into the tolerance of bull sharks to low salinity habitats and euryhalinity in this species. Currently, information on the extent of the bull sharkʼs capability to endure low salinity conditions and its longevity in these environments is scarce. The case reported here provides information on the occurrence of bull sharks for 17 years, which represents the longest uninterrupted duration in a low salinity environment that ever has been recorded in this species. Bull sharks arrived first in the lake as juveniles but through time, they have reached maturity. This occurrence presents not just another ordinary bull shark record from a low salinity environment but instead a record of physiological and scientific importance. Therefore, details of the residency of C. leucas in an Australian golf course lake are reported here.
[AGBM] Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology. 1991. Floods in Logan River catchment and Warrill Creek. [accessed 2022 Nov 04]. http://www.bom.gov.au/qld/flood/fld_reports/logan_warrill_feb1991.pdf.
[AGBM] Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology. 2013. Water Information. Ex-TC Oswald Floods. January and February 2013. [accessed 2022 Sep 28]. http://www.bom.gov.au/qld/flood/fld_reports/EXTC_Oswald.pdf.
[AGBM] Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology. 2022a. Queensland flood summary 1990-1999. [accessed 2022 Oct 13]. http://www.bom.gov.au/qld/flood/fld_history/floodsum_1990.shtml.
[AGBM] Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology. 2022b. Flood warning system for the Logan and Albert Rivers. [accessed 2022 Oct 13]. http://www.bom.gov.au/qld/flood/brochures/logan_albert/logan_albert.shtml.
[AGBM] Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology. 2022c. Known floods in the Brisbane & Bremer River basin. [accessed 2022 Sep 23]. http://www.bom.gov.au/qld/flood/fld_history/brisbane_history.shtml.
[AGBM] Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology. 2022d. Special Climate Statement 76-Extreme rainfall and flooding in south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales. [accessed 2023 Aug 1]. http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/current/statements/scs76.pdf.
Anderson WG, Good JP, Pillans RD, Hazon N, Franklin CE. 2005. Hepatic urea biosynthesis in the euryhaline elasmobranch Carcharhinus leucas. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 303 (10): 917-921. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.a.199
Ballantyne JS, Fraser DI. 2013. Euryhaline elasmobranchs. In: McCormick SD, Farrell AP, Brauner CJ, editors. Euryhaline fishes (Fish Physiol. 32). Oxford, UK & Waltham: Academic Press. p. 126-179.
Bass AJ, DʼAubrey JD, Kistnasamy N. 1973. Sharks of the east coast of Southern Africa. Vol. I. The genus Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae). Invest Rep Oceanogr Res Inst. 33: 1-168.
[BBC] British Broadcasting Corporation. 2011. Australia flooding: Brisbane resident’s experience. [accessed 2022 Aug 9]. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-12169218.
Boeseman M. 1964. Notes on the fishes of western New Guinea III. The freshwater shark of Jamoer Lake. Zool Meded. 40 (3): 9-22.
Boswell T. 2013. Sharks at Carbrook Golf Club caught on film, confirming they survived Brisbane floods. In: The Australian, editors. Issue 1 May 2013. [accessed 2022 Aug 9]. https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/latest-news/sharksat-carbrook-golf-club-caught-on-film-confirming-they-survivedbrisbane-floods/news-story/a64120d06d252fe2894a936c4a698464.
Brunnschweiler JM, Payne NL, Barnett A. 2018. Hand feeding can periodically fuel a major portion of bull shark energy requirements at a provisioning site in Fiji. Anim Conserv. 21 (1): 31-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12370
Carbrook Golf Club. 2022. Our clubʼs story. [accessed 2022 Nov 7]. https://carbrookgolfclub.com.au/ourstory.
Claman A. 2017. Wie im Kino: Sturm Debbie ist der erste echte “Sharknado”. In: Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, editors. Issue 31 March 2017. [accessed 2022 Aug 9]. https://www.waz.de/panorama/wie-im-kino-sturm-debbie-ist-der-ersteechte-sharknado-id210110379.html.
Cliff G, Dudley SFJ. 1991. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 4. The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas Valenciennes. S Afr J Mar Sci. 10 (1). 253-270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2989/02577619109504636
Compagno LJV. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish Synop. 125 (4): 251-655.
Compagno LJV. 2002. Freshwater and estuarine elasmobranch surveys in the Indo-Pacific region: threats, distribution and speciation. In: Fowler SL, Reed TM, Dipper F, editors. Elasmobranch biodiversity, conservation and management. Proceedings of the conference on shark and ray biodiversity, conservation and management, Sabah, Malaysia, July 1997. Gland: IUCN. p. 68-180.
Cottrant E, Matich P, Fisher MR. 2021. Boosted regression tree models predict the diets of juvenile bull sharks in a subtropical estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 659: 127-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13568
Curtis TH, Adams DH, Burgess GH. 2011. Seasonal distribution and habitat associations of bull sharks in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: a 30-year synthesis. Trans Am Fish Soc. 140 (5): 1213-1226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2011.618352
Daly R, Froneman PW, Smale MJ. 2013. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis. PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e78229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078229
Daly R, Le Noury P, Hempson TN, Ziembicki M, Olbers JM, Brokensha GM, Mann BQ. 2021. Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas recruitment into the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa, after prolonged mouth closure, and the first observation of a neonate bull shark preyed on by a Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus. Afr J Mar Sci. 43 (3): 417-421. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2989/1814232X.2021.1964599
Dunn RJK, Waltham NJ, Benfer NP, King BA, Lemckert CJ, Zigic S. 2014. Gold Coast Broadwater: Southern Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland (Australia). In: Wolanski, editor. Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and beyond-a synthesis. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 93-109.
Estupiñán-Montaño C, Estupiñán-Ortiz JF, Cedeño-Figueroa, LG, Galván-Magaña F, Polo-Silva CJ. 2017. Diet of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, and the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Turk J Zool. 41 (6): 1111-1117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3906/zoo-1610-31
Froese R, Pauly D, editors. 2023. FishBase. Version (02/2023). [accessed 2023 May 9]. https://www.fishbase.org.
Garrick JAF. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus. NOAA Tech Rep NMFS. 445: 1-194.
Garry C. 2011. Sharks spotted swimming past Maccas in flooded Ipswich street. In: The Daily Examiner, editors. Issue 14 January 2011. [accessed 2022 Aug 9]. https://www.news-mail.com.au/news/ipswich-bull-sharks-spotted-flood-affectedstreets/743873.
Gausmann P. 2021. Synopsis of global fresh and brackish water occurrences of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas Valenciennes, 1839 (Pisces: Carcharhinidae), with comments on distribution and habitat use. Integr Syst: Stuttgart Contr Nat Hist. 4 (1): 55-213. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18476/2021.423083
[GSAF] Global Shark Attack File. 2022. GSAF 1903.03.12. [accessed 2022 Oct 10]. https://sharkattackfile.net/spreadsheets/pdf_directory/1903.03.12-Bartlett.pdf.
Grant MI, Kyne PM, Simpfendorfer CA, White WT, Chin A. 2019. Categorising use patterns of non-marine environments by elasmobranchs and a review of their extinction risk. Rev Fish Biol Fish. 29: 689-710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11160-019-09576-w
Heupel MR, Carlson JR, Simpfendorfer CA. 2007. Shark nursery areas: concepts, definition, characterization and assumptions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 337: 287-297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/MEPS337287
Heupel MR, Simpfendorfer CA. 2008. Movement and distribution of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a variable estuarine environment. Aquat Biol. 1 (3): 277-289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/ab00030
Heupel MR, Simpfendorfer CA. 2011. Estuarine nursery areas provide a low-mortality environment for young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 433: 237-244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09191
Heupel MR, Yeiser BG, Collins AB, Ortega L, Simpfendorfer CA. 2010. Long-term presence and movement patterns of juvenile bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, in an estuarine river system. Mar Freshwat Res. 61 (1): 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF09019
Kemp J, Olley J, Haines HA. 2016. Flow variability and channel forms in southeast Queensland. Proc 8th Austral Streamfl Manag Conf. 31: 241-249.
Kidd R. 2011. Media feeding frenzy for sharks at Carbrook Golf Club. In: The Daily Telegraph, editors. Issue 11 October 2011. [accessed 2022 Oct 6]. https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/sharks-on-golf-course/newsstory/c688809d92d86a146d528a848e7c6bcf.
Kim KS, Yoo‐Lee E, Joanna Sin SC. 2011. Social media as information source: undergraduates’ use and evaluation behavior. Proc Assoc Inf Sci Technol. 48 (1): 1-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/meet.2011.14504801283
Kyne PM, Carlson JK, Ebert DA, Fordham SV, Bizzarro JJ, Graham RT, Kulka DW, Tewes EE, Harrison LR, Dulvy NK, editors. 2012. The conservation status of North American, Central American, and Caribbean chondrichthyans. Vancouver: IUCN Species Survival Commission Shark Specialist Group. 148 p.
Kyne PM, Lucifora LO. 2022. Freshwater and euryhaline elasmobranchs. In: Carrier JC, Simpfendorfer CA, Heithaus MR, Yopak, KE, editors. Biology of sharks and their relatives. 3rd Ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 567-602. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781003262190
Loneragan NR, Bunn SE. 1999. River flows and estuarine ecosystems: implications for coastal fisheries from a review and a case study of the Logan River, southeast Queensland. Aust J Ecol. 24 (4): 431-440. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-9993.1999.00975.x
Lucifora LO, de Carvalho MR, Kyne PM, White WT. 2015. Freshwater sharks and rays. Curr Biol. 25 (20): 971-973. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.051
Luther G. 1963. Some observations on the biology of Liza macrolepis (Smith) and Mugil cephalus Linnaeus (Mugilidae) with notes on the fishery of grey mullets near Mandapam. Indian J Fish. 10 (2): 642-666.
Marais JFK, Erasmus T. 1977. Body composition of Mugil cephalus, Liza dumerili, Liza richardsoni and Liza tricuspidens (Teleostei: Mugilidae) caught in the Swartkops estuary. Aquac. 10 (1): 75-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(77)90034-5
Matich P, Heithaus MR. 2012. Effects of an extreme temperature event on the behavior and age structure of an estuarine top predator, Carcharhinus leucas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 447: 165-178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09497
Matich P, Nowicki RJ, Davis J, Mohan JA, Plumlee JD, Strickland BA, TinHan TC, Wells RJD, Fisher M. 2020. Does proximity to freshwater refuge affect the size structure of an estuarine predator (Carcharhinus leucas) in the north-western Gulf of Mexico? Mar Freshwat Res. 71 (11): 1501-1516. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF19346
Meetvev VF, Steven ADL. 2014. The effects of salinity, turbidity and flow on fish biomass estimated acoustically in two tidal rivers. Mar Freshwat Res. 65 (3): 267-274. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1071/MF12266
Middelmann M, Harper B, Lacey R. 2000. Flood risks. In: Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Department of Industry, Science and Resources, editors. Community risk in Mackay. A multi-hazard risk assessment. Canberra: Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Department of Industry, Science and Resources. p. 69-87.
Montoya RV, Thorson TB. 1982. The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) and largetooth sawfish (Pristis perotteti) in Lake Bayano, a tropical man-mad impoundment in Panama. Environ Biol Fish. 7 (4): 341-347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00005568
Morgan DL, Unmack PJ, Beatty SJ, Ebner BC, Allen MG, Keleher JJ, Donaldson JA, Murphy J. 2014. An overwiew of the ‘freshwater fishes’ of Western Australia. J R Soc West Aust. 97 (2): 263-278.
OʼBrien JM. 2017. Queensland weather: Bull shark washes up in Logan flood waters. In: The West Australian, editors. Issue 2 April 2017. [accessed 2022 Oct 12]. https://thewest.com.au/news/qld/queensland-weather-bull-shark-washes-up-in-logan-flood-waters-ng-435dca9f461e42c7b816ba8aa8fc410d.
OʼConnell MT, Shepherd TD, OʼConnell AMU, Myers RA. 2007. Long-term declines in two apex predators, bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), in Lake Pontchartrain, an oligohaline estuary in southeastern Louisiana. Estuaries Coast. 30 (4): 567-574. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02841954
Odum EP. 1971. Ecology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 137 p.
Oguri M. 1964. Rectal glands of marine and fresh-water sharks: comparative histology. Science. 144 (3622): 1151-1152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.144.3622.1151
Payne NL, Snelling EP, Fitzpatrick R, Seymour J, Courtney R, Barnett A, Watanabe YY, Sims DW, Squire L Jr, Semmens JM. 2015. A new method for resolving uncertainty of energy requirements in large water-breathers: the ‘mega-flume’ seagoing swim-tunnel respirometer. Methods Ecol Evol. 6 (6): 668-677. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12358
Pillans RD. 2006. The physiological ecology of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas in the Brisbane River [PhD thesis]. Brisbane: University of Queensland. 186 p.
Pillans RD, Anderson WG, Good JD, Hyodo S, Takei Y, Hazon N, Franklin CE. 2006. Plasma and erythrocyte solute properties of juvenile bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, acutely exposed to increasing environmental salinity. J Exp Mar Biol. 331 (2): 145-157. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2005.10.013
Pillans RD, Franklin CE. 2004. Plasma osmolyte concentrations and rectal gland mass of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas, captured along a salinity gradient. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 138 (3): 363-371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CBPB.2004.05.006
Pillans RD, Fry GC, Steven ADL, Patterson T. 2020. Environmental influences on long-term movement patterns of a euryhaline elasmobranch (Carcharhinus leucas) within a subtropical estuary. Estuaries Coasts. 43 (4): 2152-2169. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-020-00755-8
Pillans RD, Good JP, Anderson WG, Hazon N, Franklin CE. 2005. Freshwater to seawater acclimation of juvenile bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas): plasma osmolytes and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in gill, rectal gland, kidney and intestine. J Comp Physiol B. 175: 37-44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-004-0460-2
Pillans RD, Good JP, Anderson WG, Hazon N, Franklin CE. 2008. Rectal gland morphology of freshwater and seawater acclimated bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas. J Fish Biol. 72 (7): 1559-1571. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.01765.x
Pillans RD, Stevens JD, Kyne PM, Salini J. 2009. Observations on the distribution, biology, short-term movements and habitat requirements of river sharks Glyphis spp. in northern Australia. Endanger Species Res. 10: 321-332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00206
Pizzirani D. 2022. Watch: bull shark in Maryborough reminds residents floods arenʼt the only danger. In: The Australian, editors. Issue 10 January 2022. [accessed 2022 Oct 12]. https://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/latest-news/watch-bull-shark-in-maryborough-reminds-residents-floods-arent-the-only-danger/news-story/df4947b925f772ba20e4d3770ca3b1b5.
Potter IC, Chalmer PN, Tiivel DJ, Steckis RA, Platell ME, Lenanton RCJ. 2000. The fish fauna and finfish fishery of the Leschenault Estuary in southwestern Australia. J R Soc West Aust. 83 (4): 481-501.
Queensland Government. 2015. Flood frequenzy analysis report. Prepared for the State of Queensland (acting through): Department of State Development, Infrastructure and Planning/Department of Natural Resources and Mines. [accessed 2023 Aug 3]. https://www.publications.qld.gov.au/dataset/7761ae95-ea44-4c0d-a3ea-53448c0d89f7/resource/45bb1c48-2bce-4d2d-b857-294f3bb407ac/download/flood-frequency-analysis-report.pdf.
Reilly BD, Cramp RL, Wilson JM, Campbell, HA, Franklin, CE. 2011. Branchial osmoregulation in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas: a molecular analysis of ion transporters. J Exp Biol. 214 (17): 2883-2895. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.058156
Rigby CL, Espinoza M, Derrick D, Pacoureau N, Dicken M. 2021. Carcharhinus leucas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T39372A2910670. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-2.RLTS.T39372A2910670.en
Sandeman G. 2017. Stay out of the water. Another bull shark found on Aussie streets after Cyclone Debbie carnage. In: The Sun (UK edition), editors. Issue 2 April 2017. [accessed 2022 Aug 9]. https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/3235826/another-bull-shark-found-on-aussie-streets-after-cyclonedebbie-carnage.
Schemer C, Matthes J, Wirth W. 2008. Toward improving the validity and reliability of media information processing measures in surveys. Commun Methods Meas. 2 (3): 193-225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19312450802310474
Schmid TH, Murru FL. 1994. Bioenergetics of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, maintained in captivity. Zoo Biol. 13 (2): 177-185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.1430130209
Seidu I, Brobbey LK, Danquah E, Oppong, SK, van Beuningen D, Dulvy NK. 2022. Local ecological knowledge, catch characteristics, and evidence of elasmobranch depletions in western Ghana artisanal fisheries. Hum Ecol. 50: 1007-1022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-022-00371-z
Social Golf Australia. 2013. Carbrookʼs sharks may be on the loose after course flooding. [accessed 2022 Nov 14]. https://aussiegolfer.com.au/carbrook-golf-clubs-sharks-may-be-on-the-loose.
Stevens JD, Pillans RD, Salini J. 2005. Conservation assessment of Glyphis sp. a (speartooth shark), Glyphis sp. C (northern river shark), Pristis microdon (freshwater sawfish) and Pristis zijsron (green sawfish). CSIRO Marine Research, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Final Report, Version 2 [no pagination].
[TAASFA] The Australian Anti Shark Finning Alliance. 2011. TAASFA’s breakfast with bull sharks-Carbrook Golf Club. YouTube.com; [accessed 2022 Nov .7]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkIZ23mgal8.
Thomerson JE, Thorson TB, Hempel RL. 1977. The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, from the Mississippi River near Alton, Illinois. Copeia. 1977 (1): 166-168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1443522
Thomson JM. 1957. The penetration of estuarine fish into freshwater in the Albert River. Proc R Soc Queensl. 68: 17-20.
Thorburn DC, Rowland AJ. 2008. Juvenile bull sharks ‘Carcharhinus leucas’ (Valenciennes, 1839) in northern Australian rivers. The Beagle: Records of the Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory. 24: 79-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/p.287439
Thorson TB. 1971. Movement of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, between Caribbean Sea and Lake Nicaragua demonstrated by tagging. Copeia. 1971 (2): 336-338. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1442846
Thorson TB. 1972. The status of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, in the Amazon River. Copeia. 1972 (3): 601-605. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1442947
Thorson TB. 1982. The impact of commercial exploitation on sawfish and shark populations in Lake Nicaragua. Fisheries. 7 (2): 2-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446(1982)007%3C0002:TIOCEO%3E2.0.CO;2
Thorson TB, Cowan CM, Watson DE. 1973. Body fluid solutes of juveniles and adults of the euryhaline bull shark Carcharhinus leucas from freshwater and saline environments. Physiol Zool. 46 (1): 29-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/physzool.46.1.30152514
Thorson TB, Gerst JW. 1972. Comparison of some parameters of serum and uterine fluid of pregnant, viviparous sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and serum of their near-term young. Comp Biochem Physiol A. 42: 33-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(72)90363-5
Tillett BJ, Meekan MG, Field MC, Thorburn DC, Ovenden JR. 2012. Evidence for reproductive philopatry in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas. J Fish Biol. 80 (6): 2140-2158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03228.x
Wagstaff S. 2011a. Carbrook Golf Club shark in the lake. YouTube.com; [accessed 2022 Oct 4]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z7ARrPk8zhQ.
Wagstaff S. 2011b. Carbrook shark-the next chapter. YouTube.com; [accessed 2022 Oct 5]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BhCZvR SYLq4.
Ward H. 2022. Discover why one lake in Australia is home to aggressive bull sharks! In: A-Z Animals, editors. Issue 12 July 2022 July. [accessed 2022 Oct 6]. https://a-z-animals.com/blog/discover-why-one-lake-in-australia-is-home-to-aggressive-bull-sharks.
Werry JM, Lee SY, Lemckert CJ, Otway NM. 2012. Natural or artificial? Habitat-use by the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas. PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49796. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049796
Werry JM, Lee SY, Otway NM, Hu Y, Sumpton W. 2011. A multi-faceted approach for quantifying the estuarine-nearshore transition in the life cycle of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas. Mar Freshwat Res. 62 (12): 1421-1431. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF11136
West JG. 2011. Changing patterns of shark attacks in Australian waters. Mar Freshwat Res. 62 (2): 744-754. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF10181
Whitfield AK. 2021. When the flathead mullet left St Lucia. Afr J Mar Sci. 43 (2): 161-169. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2989/1814232X.2021.1927179
Wintner SP, Dudley SFJ, Kistnasamy, N, Everett B. 2002. Age and growth estimates for the Zambezi shark, Carcharhinus leucas, from the east coast of South Africa. Mar Freshwat Res. 53 (2): 557-566. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/MF01062
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Peter Gausmann
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors of articles published in Marine and Fishery Sciences retain copyright on their articles, except for any third-party images and other materials added by Marine and Fishery Sciences, which are subject to copyright of their respective owners. Authors are therefore free to disseminate and re-publish their articles, subject to any requirements of third-party copyright owners and subject to the original publication being fully cited. Visitors may also download and forward articles subject to the citation requirements. The ability to copy, download, forward or otherwise distribute any materials is always subject to any copyright notices displayed. Copyright notices must be displayed prominently and may not be obliterated, deleted or hidden, totally or partially.
This journal offers authors an Open Access policy. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other legal purpose within the Creative Commons 4.0 license (BY-NC-SA), without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of Open Access.