Guidelines for Authors

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

Downloadable version (Council of Scientific Editors CSE: citation style Name-Year)

Marine & Fishery Sciences (MAFIS) is an Open Access journal edited by the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP) that publishes peer-reviewed articles of original investigations not published elsewhere except as a brief abstract in a scientific meeting or symposium. It is published three times a year aiming all work and studies on applied or scientific research in marine, coastal and brackish waters, such as Fisheries, Aquaculture, Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity, Oceanography, Coastal Management, Ecosystems, as well as their social-related aspects that directly or indirectly affect to human populations, including conservation and environmental impact. Freshwater content is restricted to Fisheries and Aquaculture production. The quality of the journal is guaranteed by the editorial and advisory boards, consisting of leading researchers in the field of marine sciences. Contributions should be written in Spanish or English in the following categories:



Original Research Papers are generally based upon hypothesis-driven research providing new information to the knowledge base, not just to confirm previously published work. Descriptive studies presenting novel information or observations and/or scholarly insight that contributes to advancement of the state of information on a given scientific topic are also allowed.

Review Articles are welcome and should cover either narrow disciplinary subjects or broad issues requiring interdisciplinary discussion. They should contain not only an up-to-date review of scientific literature but also substantial scholarly interpretation of the quality of existing data, the status of knowledge, and the research required to advance knowledge of the subject are essential. Reviews consisting solely of a summary of published data without interpretation leading to new insights or recommendations for new research directions will be returned to the author without review.

Notes should differ from full papers on the basis of scope or completeness, rather than quality of research. They may report significant new results which represent a major breakthrough or new discovery arising from problems with narrow, well defined limits, or important findings that should therefore be published quickly. They should not be used for preliminary results. Papers must contain sufficient data to establish that the research has achieved reliable and significant results.  Their text should neither exceed 1500 words  (approximately six pages of typescript) excluding keywords, tables and references, nor be divided up into conventional sections.

Technical Papers should present new methods, devices or procedures for either research methodology or analysis-related techniques. It may also describe the state of a resource, a technical or scientific research problem and provides a new approach.


MAFIS implemented CRediT at the end of articles. Please, download and use Table 1 from CRediT at:


The journal is aimed at researchers, professionals, and students from different branches of marine and fisheries sciences, such as marine biologists, fisheries scientists, ecologists, oceanographers, and fish farmers.


Animal studies

All animal experiments must comply with ARRIVE guidelines and must be conducted in accordance with institutional, national, and international guidelines related to the use of animals in research and/or sampling of endangered species. Authors must clearly indicate in the manuscript that these guidelines have been followed.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Grants or other funds that allow the conduct of the research must be declared. Please use the Acknowledgments section to do that.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the described work has not been previously published (except in the form of an abstract, a published conference or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form or in any other language without the written consent of the rights holder.

Open access

This journal offers authors an open access policy. Users may read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without prior permission from the publisher or author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

Peer Review

This journal operates using a "double blind" review process. All contributions are initially evaluated by the editor to determine if they are suitable for the journal. Articles that are considered suitable are normally sent to three independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the document. The Editor is responsible for the final decision on the acceptance or rejection of articles. The publisher's decision is final.


Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in a format compatible with Microsoft Word processor, preferably Word 2003-2007. The texts should be in single-column forma line-numbered. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. Source files of figures, tables and text graphics may be required for final formatting.


Manuscript should arranged in the following order: Title page should include a Running Head, Title, Author(s), Affiliation, Address(es), e-mail from the corresponding author; Abstract page with an Abstract and Key words; Main text should include an Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Legends, Tables, Figures and Appendices. If work is written in Spanish, please provide key words in English also.

Title (bold font) should be no more than 20 words with no authorities associated with the species. A running head of not more than 50 characters should be suggested.

Authors addresses and affiliations should follow the title. Use superscript numbers to indicate different addresses. Please include an e-mail address and telephone for the corresponding author. This will appear on the title page of each article.

Author contributions. For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following Table 1 of

Abstract should be a concise outline of the scope, main results and conclusion(s) of the paper without discussion or authorities associated with species not exceeding 200 words. Species name(s) will be in italics. Please provide up to six key words. Papers written in Spanish should provide an English abstract also. Please follow the Aquatic Science & Fisheries Thesaurus (FAO, Rome, for guidance.




Chemical analysis / Statistics / etc. (2nd heading, lower case, bold, left justified)

Hydroacustics samplings (3th heading, lower case italics, left justified)



Subheadings, if used, should follow the instructions under MATERIALS AND METHODS.


You may acknowledge individuals or organizations that provided advice, assistance or financial support. Please provide details of the sources of financial support of all authors, including grant numbers.


Taxonomic submissions should indicate Order, Suborder, Family, Genus and Species with author and year. Type of material (holotype and paratype) should be described including locations sampling and collections.


Original manuscript for consideration including text, tables and figures should be uploaded to MAFIS previous registration. If any problem uploading submission, please contact to Editorial Committee ( All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Please suggest the names, institutions and e-mail addresses of up to four potential reviewers from different countries in the research field of the paper.

The works that do not adapt to the standards set by the Editorial Committee will not be considered. Once the editorial requirements are met, they will be sent to three specialists, who will operate as anonymous reviewers (double blind). If necessary, a third evaluator will be consulted. After making the corrections suggested by the evaluators, the authors will upload the final version. The authors will receive a proof of printing, which will be corrected and returned within a week of receipt. Otherwise, the Editorial Committee will make the necessary correction, declining responsibility for errors that may go unnoticed, or postpone the publication of the work. Correction of the proof must be indicated by using the word processor´s option or by a different color or indicating the line number.

Scientific names must be italicized (not underlined) and their first mention after the Abstract must be followed by the Authority and date in parenthesis when appropriate.

Papers must be original contributions written in Spanish or English. The text will be typed double-spaced on A4 sheets of white paper, Times New Roman typography, body 11 points, with numbered lines are encouraged.

For the use of abbreviations and units the Typographic Code adopted by the FAO and the International System of Units (SI) must be followed. Therefore, the units will always be written without a dot and will remain invariable in the plural. For example, use m s-1 instead of m / s, kg h-1 instead of kg / h, g m2 s-1 instead of g m2 / s, etc. Some units are not part of the International System but are accepted for use with it and therefore have an agreed international symbol. Such is the case of the metric ton (t), liter (l), day (d), hour (h), minute (min), second (s), etc. The nautical mile is a widely used unit but does not belong to the SI, and also lacks an international symbol. Therefore, in the Spanish texts the symbol mn may be used, while in nautical nautical mile it shall not be abbreviated. This rule is intended to avoid confusion, since nm is the symbol corresponding to the SI unit nanometer (10-9 m). The International System of Units (SU) should be consulted.

When notations are used, they should be clearly defined the first time they are used in the text. Examples: total length (TL), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Capture per unit of effort CPUE will be noted in both the plural and singular texts in Spanish, while in English the singular will be written CPUE and the plural CPUEs.

Capital letters will also be accented following the correct rules of spelling in Spanish. The decimal place will be indicated with "comma" or "period" according to the language of the work, be it Spanish or English, respectively.

Footnotes should be avoided. If necessary, they should be listed correlatively.

Tables, figures and photographs

Tables and figures will be presented individually in Times New Roman typography, on a separate sheet with their respective epigraphs. If manuscript is in Spanish, a complete and sufficiently clear Abstract in English will be required.

Arabic numerals will be used for the numbering. Do not include names such as box, diagram, map, sheet, photograph, etc. References to tables and / or figures in the text will be capitalized, e.g. "... as indicated in Figure 1", "... in Table 2 ...". In the epigraphs and in the text, "Table" and "Figure" will be written without abbreviating. The symbols, abbreviations and names of the variables used in the tables and figures must be clearly stated.

Figures can occupy the entire width of the print sheet that will be 16.0 x 21.0 cm, or just one column of it (7 cm wide), according to the criteria of the Editorial Committee. Numbers and letters included in them must be of a size such that with the maximum reduction they reach between 2 and 4 mm high. In addition, black surfaces should be avoided. If the graphics were made with a computer, their printing will be done with a laser printer (high definition). When photographs are included, they should have good contrast and high resolution.


The Council of Scientific Editors (CSE) citation style should be followed: Name-Year (N-Y) system (Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 2014. 8th ed. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press).

General rules

  • Only references that have been cited in the body of the paper should be included.
  • Organization: In the N-Y system, entries are listed in alphabetical order by the name of the first author’s last name (or, if there is no known author, by organization name or by the title of the work). The year is placed after the last author’s name, followed by a period.
  • Authors’ names: List authors’ last names, followed by initials for first and middle names. Do not use periods or spaces between the initials. Do not use a comma between the last name and the initials, e.g., Smith BL. Include all authors’ names if a work has up to ten authors; for a work with eleven or more authors, list the first ten names followed by a comma and “et al.”. For works with two authors, do not use “and” or “&” to separate the authors’ names. Separate successive author names from each other by a comma and a space, e.g. Author AA, Author BB. Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document being cited, e.g. Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf. Place family designations of rank after the initials, without punctuation, e.g. Author AA Jr.
  • Multiple citations by same author: If you are citing more than one item by the same author(s), list works in chronological order (oldest first).
  • Organization/group as author: Put the abbreviation of the group name in square brackets so you can use it in your in-text citation. The abbreviation should appear as the first part of the citation in the end reference, e.g., [CLA] Canadian Lung Association.
  • Formatting titles: Do not italicize or underline the titles of books or journals.
  • Titles of books and articles: Only the first letter of the title’s first word and any proper nouns should be capitalized. Do not enclose article titles in quotation marks.
  • Titles of journals: Abbreviate the titles of any journals that consist of more than one word. Omit articles, conjunctions, and prepositions (e.g., the, and, of). Do not use apostrophes. Capitalize all the words or abbreviated words in the title. For example: Science - Sci Am – Mar Bio - Aquaculture.

To find abbreviations:

To find scientific words and keywords:

Journal titles are capitalized and abbreviated according to ISO 4. See Journal subtitles are not considered as part of the title, so are not included in the abbreviation. Journal title abbreviations do not include full points, except at the end of the title. Do not abbreviate journal titles consisting of a single word.

The issue number can be omitted if the journal is paginated consecutively through the volume, but it is not incorrect to include it. Enclose issue information in parentheses. Link multiple volume or issue numbers with an in dash.

Page ranges: Include page ranges for articles in journals/magazines/newspapers and for chapters in books. When an article appears on discontinuous pages, list all pages or page ranges, separated by commas, e.g., 145-149, 162-174. For chapters in books, use the abbreviation “p.” before the numbers (p. 63-90).

No date of publication: Use the abbreviation [date unknown]. Exception: When citing electronic publications (e.g., websites), use the dates of update/revision (or both) instead.

More than one city of publication: Use the first one listed.

Citations & Examples

  • Be sure that every in-text citation has a corresponding entry in the reference list. (Exception: personal communications)
  • In-text citations (also known as parenthetical references) include the author's last name and year of the reference without a comma, e.g., (Ramirez 2011).
  • If there is no author, include the first word(s) of the title (enough to identify the source) followed by an ellipsis (...), e.g., (Biological research … 2007)
  • For 2 authors, list both last names in the in-text citation separated by “and” (NOT an ampersand “&”), e.g., (Gatty and Gaynor 2008)
  • For more than 2 authors, list the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” and the year, e.g., (Cousseau et al. 2001)
  • For different authors with the same last name, provide initials or enough other names to distinguish between them, e.g., (Smith BL 1999; Smith TD 2002).
  • Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999).... Or, as demonstrated (Jones, 1999; Allan, 2000)... Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ...'
  • References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary.
  • More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.


  • Journal Article, 1 Author

 Reference List:

Boccanfuso J. 2018. Reduced spawning activity in the red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) is related to light intensity. Mar Sci. 41(2): 379-87.

 In-Text Citation:

(Boccanfuso 2018) 

Distinguish multiple works by the same author published in different years by placing the years after the author name in chronological sequence, separated by a comma and a space.

In-Text Citation:

Chen’s studies (1990, 1992, 1994) were examined closely …

(Smith 1970, 1975).

When multiple works from the same author in the same year, put a, b, c, etc. after the year. The sequence is preferably determined by the sequence of publication, but if this cannot be determined, order alphabetically by article title:

 In-Text Citation:

(Chen 2011a, 2011b; Chen et al. 2016a, 2016b).

If the authors of two works published in the same year have the same surname, include their initials in the in-text reference and separate the two in- text references by a semicolon and a space:


In-Text Citation:

(Dawson J 1986; Dawson M 1986).


  • Journal Article, 2 to 10 authors

Reference List:

Bakun A, Parrish RH. 1991. Comparative studies of coastal pelagic fish reproductive habitats: the anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) of the Southwestern Atlantic. ICES J Mar Sci. 48 (2): 343-361.

Brown DR, Leonarduzzi E, Machinandiarena L. 2004. Age, growth and mortality of hake larvae (Merluccius hubbsi) in the north Patagonian shelf. Sci Mar. 68: 273-283.


In-text Citation:

Smith and Jones (2016)

(Bakun and Parrish 1991)

(Brown et al. 2004)

If both authors have the same surname, include their initials in the in-text reference:

(Smith TL and Smith UV 1990).


Multiple references:

When several in-text references occur at the same point, give them in chronological order from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons. Sequence by month those published in the same year or, if this information is not available, alphabetically by author names:


In-text Citation:

(Dawson and Briggs 1974; Dawson and Jones 1974; Smith AL 1978; Smith GT 1978; Smith et al. 1978; Tyndall et al. 1978; Zymgomoski 1978; Brown 1980)

If the first author’s names and the years of publication are identical for several references, cite the surname of the first author and as many co-authors as necessary to distinguish the references, followed by et al. Include just enough names to eliminate ambiguity. For example:


In-text Citation:

(Martinez, Fuentes, et al. 1990) or (Martinez, Fuentes, Ortiz, et al. 1990), depending on what other Martinez et al. 1990 references are cited.


  • Journal Article, More Than 10 authors

Note: List the first 10 authors followed by “et al.”

Reference List:

Park KS, Kim YS, Kim JH, Choi BK, Kim SH, Oh SH, Ahn YR, Lee MS, Lee MK, Park JB, et al. 2009. Influence of human allogenic bone marrow and cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell secreting trophic factors on ATP (adenosine-5 '- triphosphate)/ADP (adenosine- 5'-diphosphate) ratio and insulin secretory function of isolated human islets from cadaveric donor. Transplant Proc. 41 (9): 3813-3818.

In-text Citation:

(Park et al. 2009)


  • Journal Article: Retrieved Online with NO DOI

Author B. Year. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. [accessed Date];[page extent]. [URL]. Notes.

Reference List:

Mathieson CM, Bailey N, Gurevich M. 2002. Health care services for lesbian and bisexual women: some Canadian data. Health Care Women Int. [accessed 2011 Jan 20]; 23 (2): 185-196.



In-text Citation:

(Mathieson et al. 2002)


  • Journal Article: Retrieved Online with DOI

Reference List:

Yencho GC, McCord PH, Haynes KG. 2008. Internal heat necrosis of potato – a review. Am J Potato Res. [accessed 2011 Jan 18]; 85(1):69-76. DOI:

In-text Citation:

(Yencho et al. 2008)


  • Magazine Article

 Reference List:

Taylor PS. 2008 July 21. The drink for the rich and uneducated. Maclean's. 121: 29.

In-text Citation:

(Taylor 2008)


  • Newspaper Article

Basic Format for Newspaper Articles: Author AA, Author BB. Date of publication. Article title. Newspaper title (edition). Section: Beginning page number (column number).

Note: Titles of newspapers are not abbreviated

Reference List:

Smith JL. 2010 Jun 7. 40-year itch hitting more marriages: divorce rate among mature couples mounts as baby boomers refuse to keep up appearances. Vancouver Sun; Sect B.7.

In-text Citation:

(Smith 2010)


  • Books, Edited Books & Book Chapters

Basic format for books: Author AA, Author BB. Year. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication (State or Prov): Publisher name. Number of pages p.


Books, 1-2 Authors

Author AA. 2016. This is a book title: and subtitle. Place: Publisher.

It is not necessary to list the extent (total pagination) of books, conference proceedings and other monographs.

Reference List:

Lewontin RC, Levins R. 2007. Biology under the influence: dialectical essays on ecology, agriculture, and health. New York (NY): Monthly Review Press. 400 p.

Jenkins PF. 2005. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.

In-text Citation:

(Lewontin and Levins 2007)

(Jenkins 2005)


Books, 3-10 Authors

Reference List:

Henning JE, Stone JM, Kelly JL. 2009. Using action research to improve instruction: an interactive guide for teachers. New York (NY): Routledge. 204 p.

In-text Citation:

(Henning et al. 2009)


Group / Corporate Author

Reference List:

[NCW] National Council of Welfare (Canada). 2001. Child poverty profile. Ottawa (ON): National Council of Welfare.

In-text Citation:

(NCW 2001)


Edited Book

Reference List:

Story J, editor. 2005. Charlemagne: empire and society. New York (NY): Manchester University Press. 330 p.

In-text Citation:

(Story 2005)


Chapter in an Edited Book

Reference List:

Kalmanson GM, Hubert EG, Montgomerie JZ. 1968. Serum bactericidal activity against protoplasts. In: Guze LB, editor. Microbial protoplasts, sphaeroplasts and L-forms. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co. p. 293-305.

In-text Citation:

(Dube and Sekhwela 2008)


Electronic Book

Reference List:

Meehan ER, Riordan E, editors. 2002. Sex & money: feminism and political economy in the media. Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota Press; [accessed 2011 Jan 21]. http://site

In-text Citation:

(Meehan and Riordan 2002)


Encyclopedia Article

Reference List:

Raymer M, Reese, DJ. Hospice. 2008. In: Mizrahi T, Davis LE, editors. Encyclopedia of social work. Vol. 2. 20th ed. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers. p. 383-388.

 In-text Citation:

(Raymer and Reese 2008)


Book with No Author, No Editor

Note: In the Reference List, start the citation with the title and put the publication date after the title details. For the In-text citation, use the first word or first few words of the tile, followed by ellipses.

 Reference List:

The encyclopedic dictionary of psychology. 3rd ed. 1986. Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group.

In-text Citation:

(The encyclopedic dictionary… 1986)


  • Published Conference Proceedings

 Reference List:

Callaos N, Margenstern M, Zhang J, Castillo O, Doberkat EE, editors. c2003. SCI 2003. Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics; Orlando, FL. Orlando (FL): International Institute of Informatics and Systematics. p. 80.

In-text Citation:

(Callaos et al. 2008)


  • Conference Papers

Reference List:

Thorneycroft IH. 1990. Oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction. In: Toward a new standard in oral contraception. Proceedings of a symposium held at the 12th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility; 1989 Oct 3; Marrakesh, Morocco. St. Louis (MO): Mosby-Year Book; 1990. p. 1393-1397

In-text Citation:

(Thorneycroft 1990)


  • Multi-Volume Work

Reference List:

Parkman F. 1915. The conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the conquest of Canada. Vol. 1, To the massacre at Michillimackinac. New York (NY): Scribners.

In-text Citation:

(Parkman 1915)



  • Web Documents

Basic Format: Title of homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; [updated date; acceeded date]. URL



Reference List:

PDRHealth. c2010. Montvale, NJ: PDRHealth; [updated 2010 Nov 15; acceeded 2011 Jan 24].

In-text Citation:

(PDRHealth 2010)


Webpage with Personal Author

Reference List:

Mulhauser G. 2010. An introduction to cognitive therapy & cognitive behavioural approaches. Newton Abbot (UK):; [updated 2010 Nov 2; acceeded 2011 Jan 22].

In-text Citation:

(Mulhauser 2010)


Webpages with Corporate Authors

Reference List:

[IRPC] Industrial Psychology Research Centre. 2010. Aberdeen (UK): University of Aberdeen. [updated 2010 Oct 6; acceeded 2011 Jan 22].

In-text Citation:

(IRPC 2010)



  • Database

If a database is open (continues to be updated), give the start date followed by an en dash and a space; if it is closed (is no longer updated), give the start and finish dates linked by an en dash.


Reference List:

IMGT/HLA Sequence Database. 2003– . Release 2.9.0. Cambridge (UK): European Bioinformatics Institute. [updated 2005 Jun 1; accessed 2005 Jun 22].


  • Computer programme

Pribor H, Meader CR. 2002. DiagnosisPro: the ultimate differential diagnosis assistant [CD-ROM]. Version 6.0. Los Angeles (CA): MedTech USA. 1 CD-ROM: color, 4 3/4 in.

Sport care [CD-ROM]. 2001. Release 1.0. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 user manual.


  • Dataset

Wang G-Y, Zhu Z-M, Cui S, Wang J-H. 2017 Aug 11. Data from: glucocorticoid induces incoordination between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the amygdala [dataset]. Dryad Digital Repository. [accessed 2017 Dec 22].


  • Audiovisual Sources

Reference List:

Kriebel G. 2008. Kamloops, BC Tourism Commercial.; [acceeded 2011 Jan 25].

Day J. 1988. Dying before their time: early death & AIDS [poster]. Farmington (CT): University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Section of Medical Arts & Letters. 1 poster: color, 14 x 21 in.

Johnson D, editor. 2002. Surgical techniques in orthopaedics: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [Blu-ray]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 1 Blu-ray.

In-text Citation:

(Kriebel 2008)

 (Day 1988)

Johnson (1982)


Motion Picture

Note: Use “videocassette” for VHS tapes and “videodisc” for DVDs.

Reference List:

Downey D, producer/director. 2008. Community health nursing: a practical view. [videodisc]. St. John’s (NL): Memorial University of Newfoundland. 1 videodisc: 28 min, sound, colour, 4 ¾ in.

Baxley N, Dunaway C. 1982. Cognition, creativity, and behavior: the Columban simulations [motion picture]. Baxley N, editor and producer. Champaign (IL): Research Press Company. 1 reel: 30 min., sound, color, 16 mm.

In-text Citation:

(Downey 2006)

Baxley and Dunaway (1982)


  • Personal Communication & Handouts

Personal Communication

Note: Do not include references to personal communication (e.g., letters, phone calls, conversations, text messages, emails, and interviews) in your reference list. Instead, CSE recommends placing them within the body of the paper and acknowledge them in a “Notes” section.

In-text Citation:

… although this is not an easy thing to do (2008 letter from S Neifer), it is well worth the effort.


  • Laboratory Report / Technical paper or Handout

Reference List:

Smith B. 2009. Retrieving data from the 2006 Artisanal Fishery Census. SOCI 121 Laboratory Handout. Kamloops (BC): Librarians Department, Archivald Holmes University.

In-text Citation:

(Smith 2009)

  • & MSc. Thesis / BS Seminars

Reference List:

Pappalardo MM. 1986. Phytoplanktonic biomass in the northern Patagonian Shelf during spring bloom. [PhD thesis]. Mar del Plata: School of Exact and Natural Sciences, National University of Mar del Plata. 295 p.

In-text Citation:

(Pappalardo 1986)


  • INIDEP Series

- Serie "Contribuciones" del Instituto Biología Marina: Contrib Inst Biol Mar (Mar del Plata). Nº…

- Serie "Contribuciones" del INIDEP: Contrib Inst Nac Invest Desarr Pesq (Mar del Plata). Nº…

- Boletín del Instituto de Biología Marina: Boletín Instituto Biología Marina (Mar del Plata). Nº…

- Boletín Informativo del Instituto de Biología Marina: Boletín Informativo, Instituto Biología Marina (Mar del Plata). Nº:..

- Informe de Campaña: INIDEP, Informe de la campaña (sigla/año). Proyecto (denominación). Biblioteca INIDEP, Mar del Plata.

- Revista de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero: Rev Invest Desarr Pesq. 3: 59-76.

- Serie INIDEP Informe Técnico: INIDEP Inf Téc. 14. 30 p. or INIDEP Inf Téc. 18: 5-13.

- Serie INIDEP Documento Científico: INIDEP Doc. Cient. 5: 81-93.

- INIDEP Special Publications: Cousseau MB, Perrotta RG. 2000. Peces marinos de Argentina. Biología, distribución, pesca. Mar del Plata: Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP). 167 p.


Non-published INIDEP internal reports should be cited as:

- Informe Técnico Interno: Inf Téc Int DNI-INIDEP N° 120/2002. 18 p.

- Informe Técnico INIDEP: Inf Téc INIDEP Nº 6/2006. 14 p.

- Informe Técnico Oficial: Inf Téc INIDEP Nº 17/2008. 8 p.

- Informe de Investigación: Inf Invest INIDEP N° 1/2008. 8 p.

- Informe de Campaña (before 2008): INIDEP, Informe de la campaña (sigla/año). Proyecto (denominación). Mar del Plata: Biblioteca INIDEP. 6 p.

- Informe de Campaña (after 2008): Inf Camp INIDEP Nº 5/2008. 9 p.

- Informe de Asesoramiento y Transferencia: Inf Ases Transf INIDEP N° 20/2008. 8 p.

- Documento Técnico: Doc Téc INIDEP N° 9/2008. 8 p.


Reference order

At the end of a document, list the references to sources that have been cited within the text, including those found in tables and figures, under the heading References.

Place references in alphabetical order by author. Alphabetical sequence is determined by the first author’s surname (family name) and then, if necessary, by letter-by-letter alphabetical sequencing determined by the initials of the first author and the beginning letters of any subsequent authors’ surnames.

Order references by the same author(s) by year in ascending order.

If there are several items with the same first author, alone and/or with co-authors, present items by a single author before items with co-authors, regardless of title. In such a grouping, give the multi-author publications in alphabetical order by the second author’s surname, regardless of the number of authors.

When organizations serve as authors, drop ‘The’ in an organizational name for the purposes of alphabetizing (unless ‘The’ is part of the official name of the organization), e.g. ‘American Chemical Society’, not ‘The American Chemical Society’. When initials have been used for an organization as the in-text reference, order the reference by the full name, not the initials – so that in the list, [ACS] American Chemical Society precedes [ABU] Australian Biochemical Union.

If no authors are present, order items by title, following these principles: ignore ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’ at the beginning of a title when alphabetizing. Order initials and acronyms in document titles as if they were words, not by the full name for which they stand. Order a title beginning with a number as if it were written out in words.

 Date of publication

The year of publication is required for all references. The month and day of the month (or the season) must be included only when citing a journal that has no volume or issue number, when citing a newspaper or a patent, and for dates of update/revision and citation of electronic publications.

Months are abbreviated using the first three letters and placed after the year, e.g. 2016 Feb. A range of months is linked with an en dash, e.g. Aug–Oct. If no date of publication can be found, but can be reasonably inferred from within the publication, enclose it in square brackets, e.g. [2016]: If no date of publication can be found or inferred, use [date unknown].