MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 36 (1): 101-108 (2023)
ABSTRACT. Gastropods are one of the constituents of benthic communities in waters and are
found throughout the world, ranging from shallow, sandy, coral reefs to deep seas. Gastropods have
several advantages, one of the most relevant is that they can be used as bioindicators of pollution.
The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity and abundance of gastropods in Kapas
Island, Indonesia. This research was conducted for two months on the coast of Kapas Island,
Indonesia. Gastropod collection was carried out at 10 observation stations using three transect lines
toward the sea and divided into three parts, namely upper intertidal, middle intertidal, and lower
intertidal on each transect line. The distance between stations was 150 m. Ninety plots of 1 m2
were set. Abundance and diversity were analyzed qualitatively. Results showed that gastropods con-
sisted of 9 genera and 14 species. Among them, Cerithium sp. had the highest individual abundance
(40.15%). The diversity index of gastropods in Kapas Island was 2.07 (medium diversity).
Key words: Abundance, intertidal gastropods, marine environment.
Diversidad de gasterópodos en la Isla Kapas, Indonesia
RESUMEN. Los gasterópodos son uno de los constituyentes de las comunidades bénticas en
las aguas y se encuentran en todo el mundo, desde arrecifes de coral arenosos hasta mares profun-
dos. Los gasterópodos tienen varias ventajas, una de las más relevantes es que pueden ser utiliza-
dos como bioindicadores de contaminación. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la diver-
sidad y abundancia de gasterópodos en la Isla Kapas, Indonesia. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo
durante dos meses en la costa de la Isla Kapas, Indonesia. La recolección de gasterópodos se llevó
a cabo en 10 estaciones de observación utilizando tres líneas de transecta hacia el mar, divididas
en tres partes, a saber, intermareal superior, intermareal medio e intermareal inferior, para cada
línea de transecta. La distancia entre estaciones fue de 150 m. Se establecieron 90 parcelas de
1 m2cada una. La abundancia y la diversidad se analizaron cualitativamente. Los resultados mos-
traron nueve géneros y 14 especies de gasterópodos. Entre ellos, Cerithium sp. tuvo la mayor
abundancia individual (40,15%). El índice de diversidad de gasterópodos en la Isla Kapas fue de
2,07 (diversidad media).
Palabras clave: Abundancia, gasterópodos intermareales, ambiente marino.
Marine Gastropoda has a variety of species found from intertidal to deep
sea areas, often attached to substrates such as coral reefs, wood, aquatic
plants, and immersed in sediments (Ratna et al. 2016). Gastropods are one of
the constituents of benthic communities and are found all over the world,
from shallow sandy and coral reefs to deep waters. Gastropods can also be
Received: 14 October 2022
Accepted: 8 November 2022
ISSN 2683-7595 (print)
ISSN 2683-7951 (online)
Journal of the Instituto Nacional de
Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero
This work is licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution-
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International License
Marine and
Fishery Sciences
Diversity of gastropods in Kapas Island, Indonesia
Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries, Madako Tolitoli University, Madako road, Tambun Village, Tolitoli District, Central
Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. ORCID Suardi Laheng
used as bioindicators of pollution because they
feed on detritus and more abundant where the
environmental has better conditions. Economi-
caly, gastropods are consumed as food, and the
shells are used as an industrial raw materials for
accessories, necklaces and tapestries, as well as
being consumed by other gastropods (Paror-
rongan et al. 2018).
Previous research related to the diversity of
intertidal organisms in Tolitoli Regency has been
carried out on starfish in Bajugan beach (Putri
and Potoboba 2022) and on gastropods in the vil-
lage of Binontoan (Yanti et al. 2022). Coastal
areas with abundant gastropods can be found in
the Tolitoli district, Central Sulawesi. Kapas
Island is a distinctive marine area for tourism,
where gastropods are extensively harvested for
local consumption and as economic support for
inhabitants (BPS 2017). Overexploitation is a
possible consequence of uncontrolled extractive
activities in the island (Parorrongan et al. 2018).
Based on this information, diversity and abun-
dance become one of the benchmarks for assess-
ing the sustainability of marine ecosystems. In
order to determine the status of these aquatic
organisms, the diversity and abundance of gas-
tropods in Kapas Island were evaluated.
This research was conducted for two months
off the coast of Kapas Island, Tolitoli Regency,
Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia (1° 16' 58"
N-120° 47'57"E). Gastropods were collected at
10 sampling stations (Figure 1). For each station,
three transect lines of 50 m and 150 m in width
were established towards the sea, perpendicular
to the shoreline, divided into three levels, namely
upper, middle, and lower intertidal. The distance
between stations was 150 m. A total number of
90 plots (quadrats) of 1 ×1 m were randomly
selected (English et al. 1997). Gastropods found
in each plot were identified, sorted and num-
bered, and three individuals for each species were
preserved in formalin 70% (Rukmana and
Purnomo 2019). All specimens were deposited at
the Madako Tolitoli University Laboratory. Envi-
ronmental observations included the substrate
type and in situ water temperature and pH.
Gastropods were identified to the lowest taxo-
nomic level using identification books (Dharma
1988) and journals (Bula et al. 2017; Haumahu
and Uneputty 2018; Rukmana and Purnomo
2019; Liline et al. 2021) based on morphological
characteristics such as shape, color, and shell. The
validity of species names was also checked from
the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)
Frequency of incidence (FoI) was estimated
using the equation:
FoI = Ni.St ×100
where, Ni.St is the total number of locations
where the species iwas found, N.St is the total
number of sampling locations (Romimohtarto
and Juawana 2001). Frequency value ranges are
0-25% (very rare), 25-50% (rare), 50-75% (mod-
erate), and > 75% (frequent/absolute). Gastropod
abundance was calculated using the formula:
Ki = ni
where Ki is the individual abundance (density)
(ind. m-2), ni is the number of each species (indi-
vidual), and Ais the transect area (m2). The cal-
culation of gastropod diversity was done using
the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’):
H’ =-∑ Pi (LNPi)
where Pi is the proportion of the ith species, and
LN represent the logarithm of Pi. The Shannon-
Wiener diversity index is classified into three lev-
els: H’ <1 (low species diversity), 1 H’ 3
(medium species diversity), and H’ >3 (high
species diversity) (Brower et al. 1990).
102 MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 36 (1): 101-108 (2023)