MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
https://doi.org/10.47193/mafis.3322020301103
ABSTRACT. This study describes shore-based competitive fishing events in Ilhéus, southern
Bahia (Brazil), including catch composition, and provides information on the profile of recreational
fishers participating in these events. Information was collected in all events promoted by the Clube
de Pesca de Ilhéus (CLUPESIL) in 2007-2008. A total of 26 competitive fishing events were organ-
ized during this period, with 47 species caught. The top species were: Cathorops spixii,
Menticirrhus littoralis, Trachinotus goodei, Eucinostomus melanopterus, Polydactylus virginicus,
Atherinella brasiliensis, and Eucinostomus argenteus. These seven species represented 87% of the
total catch in number and 78% in weight. Menticirrhus littoralis and Polydactylus virginicus are
species of commercial interest and their catch was dominated by juveniles. Local recreational fish-
ers were predominately middle-aged men, who tended to use small hooks and mainly shrimp as bait.
They were consumption-oriented, but also released small fishes. During competitions, fishers used
even smaller hooks. Most of them perceived shrimp trawling as the main factor affecting recreation-
al fisheries. The use of larger hooks and a minimum fish size of 20 cm are suggested to decrease the
capture of juveniles, mainly those species of commercial importance. This study sets a baseline from
which new studies can be proposed to access the current status of local recreational fisheries.
Key words: Angling, recreational fishery, sport fishing, shore-based fisheries, tournament, north-
eastern Brazil.
Pesca recreativa competitiva desde la costa en el sur de Bahía, Brasil: un estudio de línea de
base
RESUMEN. Este estudio describe eventos competitivos de pesca desde la costa en Ilhéus, sur de
Bahía (Brasil), incluida la composición de la captura, y proporciona información sobre el perfil de
los pescadores recreativos que participan en estos eventos. La información se recopiló en todos los
eventos promovidos por el Clube de Pesca de Ilhéus (CLUPESIL) en 2007-2008. Se organizaron un
total de 26 eventos de pesca competitiva durante este período con 47 especies capturadas. Las prin-
cipales especies fueron: Cathorops spixii, Menticirrhus littoralis, Trachinotus goodei, Eucinostomus
melanopterus, Polydactylus virginicus, Atherinella brasiliensis y Eucinostomus argenteus. Estas
siete especies representaron el 87% de la captura total en número y el 78% en peso. Menticirrhus
littoralis y Polydactylus virginicus son especies de interés comercial y su captura estuvo dominada
por juveniles. Los pescadores recreativos locales eran predominantemente hombres de mediana
edad, que solían usar anzuelos pequeños y principalmente camarones como carnada. Estaban orien-
tados al consumo, pero también liberaron peces pequeños. Durante las competiciones, los
pescadores usaron anzuelos incluso más pequeños. La mayoría de ellos percibió a el arrastre de
MARINE IMPACTS IN THE ANTHROPOCENE
Shore-based competitive recreational fisheries in southern Bahia, Brazil: a
baseline study
KÁTIA MEIRELLES FELIZOLA FREIRE
1, 2, *
, FELIPE PINTO NASCIMENTO
2, 3
and GECELY RODRIGUES ALVES ROCHA
2
1
Departamento de Engenharia de Pesca e Aquicultura, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Cidade Universitária Prof. José Aloísio de Campos,
Av. Mal. Rondon s/n, Jardim Rosa Elze - São Cristóvão, Brazil.
2
Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade,
Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16, Salobrinho - Ilhéus, Brazil.
3
Instituto do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos (INEMA), Avenida Luís Viana
Filho, 6ª Avenida, nº 600, CA - Salvador, Brazil
183
Marine and
Fishery Sciences
MAFIS
*Correspondence:
kmffreire2018@gmail.com
Received: 1 June 2020
Accepted: 8 July 2020
ISSN 2683-7595 (print)
ISSN 2683-7951 (online)
https://ojs.inidep.edu.ar/ojs/index.php/
mafis/
Journal of the Instituto Nacional de
Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero
(INIDEP)
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
International License
INTRODUCTION
Recreational fisheries have been recognized
worldwide as an important industry, which gener-
ates about 39.7 billion USD in expenditure for
marine waters only (Cisneros-Montemayor and
Sumaila 2010). Some rough global estimates
available indicated that recreational catches
amounted to about 0.5-11 million tonnes, includ-
ing only inland fisheries, only marine fisheries or
both (Coates 1995; Cooke and Cowx 2004),
which are small in relation to commercial catches
(FAO 2018). Only recently, catches originating
from marine recreational fisheries were estimated
in a per country basis using several different
approaches depending on local data availability,
indicating that around 0.9 million tonnes were
extracted from marine waters by recreational
fishers in 2014 (Freire et al. 2020). Even though
recreational catches are globally small, they may
surpass commercial catches for some species
(Gentner and Lowther 2002; Coleman et al. 2004;
Freire et al. 2020). Global number of anglers is
also unknown, but Arlinghaus et al. (2020)
revised all participation rates available around the
globe indicating a global participation rate of
10.6% and increasing up to 42% in countries such
as Norway. For developing countries as a whole,
these estimates are unavailable. According to
Arlinghaus et al. (2020), participation rate is
unknown for regions such as Central America, the
Caribbean, Africa, and Southeast, Central and
Western Asia. For South America, participation
rate is 0-5% and has been increasing in the last
years. In Brazil, this proportion may be slightly
lower than 1% (Freire et al. 2016).
A comprehensive analysis of recreational fish-
eries requires the understanding of their different
sectors: shore-based, boat-based (both coastal
and oceanic), spearfishing, participants of com-
petitive fishing events (tournaments, champi-
onships, jamborees), and freshwater and marine
fisheries. Each sector has different consumption
habits and motivation factors, which result in a
range of fishing practices (Fedler and Ditton
1994). Ultimately, these choices will be reflected
in fishing policies. The importance of competitive
events has been underestimated, even though
their frequency in some regions is very high. In
North America, e.g., about 25,000 events were
promoted in 2000-2001 in freshwater and another
978 in marine waters (Kerr and Kamke 2003).
Some of them may have up to 3,000 participants
(Schramm Jr. et al. 1991), which could have a
considerable high impact on the abundance of tar-
get species, especially when targeting single
species. In Brazil, there is no estimate of the total
number of events, but Freire (2010) reported a
total of 100 promoted annually in marine waters
only in northeastern Brazil.
Llompart et al. (2012) emphasized that most of
the studies on marine recreational fisheries have
been carried out in the Northern Hemisphere with
a few studies in the Southern Hemisphere, includ-
ing Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Information about recreational fisheries in South
America (including Brazil) is also scarce and, in
some cases, restricted to a few oceanic fishing
tournaments (see, e.g., Mourato et al. 2016;
Mourato et al. 2019). This is equally true for cold
temperate marine waters in South America, where
Llompart et al. (2012) claimed to have analysed
for the first time the major coastal recreational
fishery. In northeastern Brazil, a typically tropical
184
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
camarones como el principal factor que afecta la pesca recreativa. Se sugiere el uso de anzuelos más grandes y un tamaño mínimo de
20 cm para disminuir la captura de juveniles, principalmente los de especies de importancia comercial. Este estudio establece una línea
de base a partir de la cual se pueden proponer nuevos estudios para acceder al estado actual de la pesca recreativa local.
Palabras clave: Pesca con caña, pesca recreativa, pesca deportiva, pesca desde la costa, torneo, noreste de Brasil.
area, the availability of studies is also scarce (see,
e.g., Nunes et al. 2012; Freire et al. 2017). In this
region, recreational fishers are organized in fish-
ing clubs and prefer shore-based fishing activities
(Freire 2005), even though offshore recreational
fisheries have been gaining many adepts through-
out the years (Freire et al. 2018). Some clubs are
very active in promoting fishing tournaments all
year around, but do not record their catch by
species. Therefore, there is a lack of knowledge
about catch composition. One of these fishing
clubs, CLUPESIL (Clube de Pesca de Ilhéus), is
located in southern Bahia (Municipality of Ilhéus)
and has been very active in promoting competi-
tive fishing events since 1975 when it was estab-
lished. The objective of this study was to describe
competitive fishing events taking place in Ilhéus,
southern Bahia, including the catch composition,
and to provide information on the profile of recre-
ational fishers participating in these events to
serve as a baseline to assess changes to current
state and future perspectives.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Competitive fishing events and ichthyofauna
All competitive fishing events promoted by the
Ilhéus Fishing Club (Clube de Pesca de Ilhéus -
CLUPESIL) within the limits of the municipality
of Ilhéus (about 32 km to the north and 33 km to
the south) were monitored in 2007-2008 (Figure
1). Three other fishing clubs existed in Ilhéus dur-
ing that period: Candirú Clube de Pesca, Clube de
Pesca da Gabriela, and Estrela do Mar. However,
none of them promoted fishing competitions.
CLUPESIL organized one to three competitive
fishing events per month in Ilhéus, with a total of
26 events in 2007-2008 (Table 1). Fishers from
the other three local clubs participated in these
events. Some events were two days long (four
hours on Saturday afternoon and four hours on
Sunday morning), such as Torneio da Gabriela,
which attracted fishers from other states
(Alagoas, Sergipe, Espírito Santo, and Rio de
Janeiro), totaling 168 fishers in 2007 and 96 in
2008. All the others were one-day events, lasting
four hours (Saturday afternoon or Sunday morn-
ing), and all participants inhabited Ilhéus or the
surroudings. An average of 40 fishers took part in
the CLUPESIL Internal Championship (Campeo-
nato Individual de Pesca de Arremesso de Praia
do CLUPESIL) in 2007, starting with 48 fishers
and finishing with 32 by the end of the year. In
2008, 54 fishers were present in the first round,
but only 38 participated in the last round. In order
to account for differences in effort among events,
number and weight of fishes caught were divided
by number of fishers before the analysis of tem-
poral trends.
After each event, the organizers recorded the
results as total number of fishes caught per recre-
ational fisher and their corresponding total weight.
These data were used to calculate the mean fish
weight throughout the study period. Our research
team then separated each specimen by common
name in buckets. The identification of specimens
by common name was done by an ‘expert’ fisher
nominated by the participants based on his long
term experience. The content of each bucket was
then counted, weighed, and recorded by common
name. Between one and three specimens associat-
ed with each common name were taken to the
Laboratório de Oceanografia Biológica at the Uni-
versidade Estadual de Santa Cruz to be identified
by their scientific names mainly according to
Figueiredo and Menezes (1978, 1980, 2000) and
Menezes and Figueiredo (1980, 1985). The total
number and weight of each species caught were
calculated based on the results of the competitive
events. Species found in 75-100% of competitive
events were considered ‘highly frequent’, in 50-
74% were ‘frequent’, and ‘occasional’ if found in
less than 50% of the events. Catch per unit of
effort (CPUE) was calculated both in number and
weight of fish per recreational fisher.
185
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Additionally, samples of at least 30 specimens
of each main species (unless a smaller number
was caught) were taken from each event after
being counted and weighed by the organizers,
and carried to the laboratory to be individually
measured (total length; cm), weighed (total
weight; g) and sexed, and had their maturity
stage defined based on a macroscopic analysis. A
simple four stage scale of maturity was used
(Vazzoler 1996): I – immature; II – developing;
III – ripe; IV – post-spawning. Only detailed
information for Menticirrhus littoralis (Hol-
brook, 1847) and Polydactylus virginicus (Lin-
naeus, 1758) were presented due to the availabil-
ity of size at first maturity from the literature
(Braun and Fontoura 2004) or the collection of
sufficient data to fit a maturity curve (using the
proportion of stages II, III and IV), allowing for
the estimation of the proportion of juveniles in
the catch. These species are caught by commer-
cial fisheries and were also captured by recre-
ational fishers in the neighbor state of Sergipe,
the only state in northeastern Brazil where catch
composition in fishing competitive events was
provided by species (Freire et al. 2017). A t-test
considering equal variances was applied to com-
pare the mean size between 2007 and 2008 for
these two species.
Association among fishing grounds (beaches)
was assessed using cluster analysis after trans-
forming the abundance data using square root to
decrease the weight of very abundant species
(Krebs 1999) and calculating the Bray-Curtis
similarity index.
186
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
Figure 1. Beaches where competitive fishing events promoted by CLUPESIL occurred in Ilhéus, southern Bahia, Brazil (2007-
2008). Downtown Ilhéus corresponds to Espigão, Velhos Marinheiros, Avenida, and Cristo. Pé de Serra to São Miguel
are northern beaches and Pousada Ecológica to Lençóis are southern beaches.
187
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Table 1. Competitive fishing events promoted by Clube de Pesca de Ilhéus (CLUPESIL) in Ilhéus, southern Bahia, in 2007 and 2008.
Event (round) Data Period Category* Number of anglers Locality
1. Clupesil Championship (1st) 10/3/2007 14:00-18:00 Individual 48 Praia dos Velhos Marinheiros (D)
2. Clupesil Championship (2nd) 25/3/2007 08:30-12:30 Individual 46 Pousada Ecológica (S)
3. Clupesil Championship (3rd) 22/4/2007 08:00-12:00 Individual 35 Falafina (N)
4. Clupesil Championship (4th) 06/5/2007 08:00-12:00 Individual 36 Condomínio Japará (N)
5. Clupesil Championship (5th) 12/5/2007 13:30-17:30 Individual 37 Praia do Cristo (D)
6. Ilhéus City Tournament 28/6/2007 08:00-12:00 Double 54 Praia da Avenida (D)
7. Clupesil Championship (6th) 22/7/2007 08:00-12:00 Individual 36 Praia do Pé de Serra (N)
8. Clupesil Championship (7th) 18/8/2007 13:00-17:00 Individual 30 Praia de São Miguel (N)
9. Clupesil Championship (8th) 23/9/2007 07:30-11:30 Individual 29 Praia de Lençóis (S)
10. Clupesil Championship (9th) 23/10/2007 13:30-17:30 Individual 26 Praia do Espigão (D)
11. 24th Gabriela Tournament (1st) 03/11/2007 13:00-17:00 Triplet 168 Praia da Avenida (D)
12. 24th Gabriela Tournament (2nd) 04/11/2007 06:00-10:00 Triplet 168 Praia da Avenida (D)
13. Clupesil Championship (10th) 25/11/2007 08:00-12:00 Individual 32 Acuípe (S)
14. Clupesil Championship (1st) 29/3/2008 13:00-17:00 Individual 54 Praia da Avenida (D)
15. Clupesil Championship (2nd) 27/4/2008 07:00-11:00 Individual 50 Falafina (N)
16. Clupesil Championship (3rd) 04/5/2008 07:00-11:00 Individual 50 Clube do BANEB (S)
17. Clupesil Championship (4th) 15/6/2008 08:00-12:00 Individual 48 Acuípe (S)
18. Double Tournament Ilhéus 28/6/2008 08:00-12:00 Double 64 Praia dos Velhos Marinheiros (D)
19. 1st Banking Clerk Tournament 13/7/2008 08:30-12:30 Individual 27 Clube do BANEB (S)
20. Clupesil Championship (5th) 27/7/2008 08:30-12:30 Individual 44 Praia de Lençóis (S)
21. Clupesil Championship (6th) 09/8/2008 13:00-17:00 Individual 45 Praia de São Miguel (N)
22. Clupesil Championship (7th) 20/9/2008 13:00-17:00 Individual 38 Praia do Espigão (D)
23. Clupesil Championship (8th) 19/10/2008 13:00-17:00 Individual 37 Praia dos Velhos Marinheiros (D)
24. 25th Gabriela Tournament (1st) 01/11/2008 13:00-17:00 Triplet 96 Praia da Avenida (D)
25. 25th Gabriela Tournament (2nd) 02/11/2008 06:00-10:00 Triplet 96 Praia da Avenida (D)
26. Clupesil Championship (9th) 30/11/2008 08:00-12:00 Individual 38 Acuípe (S)
*Individual: one angler, double: two anglers (any gender or age category, but registered according to the strongest category), triplet: maximum of three anglers
(any gender or age class, but registered according to the strongest category); D, N, and S refer to beaches located downtown, in the northern coast, and in the
southern coast of Ilhéus, respectively.
Profile of recreational fishers
A questionnaire with 22 open- and close-ended
questions was applied in 2008 to recreational fish-
ers that participated actively in the CLUPESIL
Internal Championship. As previously mentioned,
a maximum of 54 fishers were present at the
beginning of this championship (March 2008), but
numbers decreased throughout the year and some
fishers may have missed some of the rounds. The
questionnaire was personally applied to fishers by
one of the authors right after each of the rounds in
an attempt to include all fishers. No fisher refused
to participate in this study. The questionnaire
included socio-economic questions related to gen-
der, age, profession, and wages. Wages were
defined in intervals (1, 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, > 20) and
represented the number of minimum wages
earned by month per fisher (R$ 415.00 in 2008
USD 226.00). Questions also included details on
fishing habits and gears, including gear type, line
thickness, and hook size. Hook size was defined
as the commercial standard locally used (3/0, 2/0,
1/0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 24). An aluminum
plate with each of these hooks glued on its top was
shown during the interview. In order to evaluate
fishing activities outside competitive events, other
questions were added: preferred fishing ground,
preferred time of the year and days of the week for
fishing, catch-and-release practice, destination of
fishes caught, origin of fishing knowledge, and
fishing mates. Finally, fishers were asked about
the number of years of fishing experience and
which problems have affected recreational fish-
eries during this period.
RESULTS
Competitive fishing events and ichthyofauna
A total of 10,026 fishes (about 360 kg) were
caught in all competitive fishing events that took
place in Ilhéus in 2007-2008. Each fisher caught
an average of eight fishes per event. They usually
caught between three and 11 fishes, but they
caught a maximum of 17 and 19 in March and
May, respectively (Figure 2 A), all of them in
downtown Ilhéus. Mean catch in weight per fish-
er was 260 g (138-430 g; Figure 2 B). In general,
an increase in mean weight per fish was observed
throughout the studied period (Figure 3). Each
specimen had a mean weight of 39 g, with two
events showing lower mean weight than the trend
observed (9 and 20 g; Figure 3), both of them in
downtown Ilhéus. The highest mean weight per
fish (80 g) occurred in southern Ilhéus, which was
above the general trend (Figure 3).
Based on the analysis of all specimens caught,
we were able to identify fishes as belonging to
47 species and 22 families. Families with the
highest number of species were: Carangidae (9
species), Sciaenidae (6), Haemulidae (5), Gerrei-
dae (4), Ariidae (3), Engraulidae (3), and Cen-
tropomidae (2) (Table 2). Among the most repre-
sentative families, Ariidae was the most impor-
tant (about 37% for both number and weight),
followed by Carangidae, Gerreidae, Sciaenidae,
Polynemidae, Atherinopsidae, Haemulidae, and
Centropomidae. No species was present in all
events. The following species were relevant, rep-
resenting altogether 87% of the total catch in
number and 78% in weight: Cathorops spixii
(Agassiz, 1829), Menticirrhus littoralis, Tra-
chinotus goodei Jordan and Evermann, 1896,
Eucinostomus melanopterus (Bleeker, 1863),
Polydactylus virginicus, Atherinella brasiliensis
(Quoy and Gaimard, 1825), and Eucinostomus
argenteus Baird and Girard, 1855. These
species, together with Trachinotus carolinus
(Linnaeus, 1766), Genidens genidens (Cuvier,
1829), and Caranx hippos (Linnaeus, 1766),
were considered highly frequent or frequent,
occurring in 50% or more of all fishing events.
The remaining species had a frequency of occur-
rence lower than 50% and were considered occa-
sional (Table 2).
188
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
189
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Figure 2. Number (A) and weight in grams (B) of fishes caught per recreational fisher in each competitive fishing event promot-
ed by CLUPESIL in Ilhéus, southern Bahia (2007-2008). Vertical lines represent minimum and maximum values and
horizontal lines indicate mean values for each month.
Figure 3. Mean weight of individual fishes caught by recreational fishers during competitive fishing events promoted by CLU-
PESIL in Ilhéus, southern Bahia (2007-2008; females and males combined). White circles represent outliers.
20
15
10
5
0
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
CPUE (number fisher )
-1
500
400
300
200
100
0
CPUE (g fisher )
-1
Month
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Month
A
B
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Mar/07
Apr/07
May/07
Mean weight (g fish )
-1
Jun/07
Jul/07
Aug/07
Sep/07
Oct/07
Nov/07
Dec/07
Mar/08
Apr/08
May/08
Jun/08
Jul/08
Aug/08
Sep/08
Oct/08
Nov/08
Jan/08
Feb/08
Month/year
190
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
Table 2. Species composition of catches originating from competitive fishing events that took place in the coast of Ilhéus, southern Bahia, in 2007-2008.
Frequency of occurrence (related to the percentage of events in which each species occurred): highly frequent (occurred in 75-100% of the events),
frequent (50-74%), and occasional (< 50%).
Species Common name Common name Family Total Total Frequency of
in English in Portuguese number weight (g) occurrence
Cathorops spixii Madamango sea catfish Bagre Ariidae 3,327 96,950 Highly frequent
Menticirrhus littoralis Gulf kingcroaker Corre costa Sciaenidae 1,285 68,307 Highly frequent
Trachinotus goodei Great pompano Pampo galhudo/Aratobaia Carangidae 1,095 23,467 Highly frequent
Eucinostomus melanopterus Flagfin mojarra Carapicu Gerreidae 855 17,210 Highly frequent
Polydactylus virginicus Barbu Barbudo Polynemidae 764 47,800 Highly frequent
Atherinella brasiliensis Brazilian silverside Pisquila Atherinopsidae 742 5,530 Frequent
Eucinostomus argenteus Silver mojarra Carapicu Gerreidae 653 6,674 Frequent
Trachinotus carolinus Florida pompano Pampo espinha mole/ Carangidae 413 16,595 Highly frequent
Pampo verdadeiro
Genidens genidens Guri sea catfish Bagre Ariidae 322 27,637 Frequent
Caranx hippos Crevalle jack Cabeçudo/Guaricema Carangidae 165 5,881 Highly frequent
Carangidae - - Carangidae 50 590 Occasional
Centropomus parallelus Fat snook Robalo comum Centropomidae 45 6,850 Occasional
Haemulopsis corvinaeformis Roughneck grunt Cocoroca Haemulidae 43 2,110 Occasional
Conodon nobilis Barred grunt Roncador Haemulidae 28 916 Occasional
Syacium micrurum Channel flounder Linguado Paralichthyidae 22 250 Occasional
Diapterus auratus Irish mojarra Carapeba Gerreidae 19 4,825 Occasional
Trachinotus falcatus Permit Pampo Redondo Carangidae 17 110 Occasional
Bagre bagre Coco sea catfish Bagre fidalgo Ariidae 14 6,675 Occasional
Sphoeroides testudineus Checkered puffer Baiacu Tetraodontidae 13 2,040 Occasional
Labrisomus nuchipinnis Hairy blenny Blênio/Moré macaco Labrisomidae 12 234 Occasional
Ophioscion punctatissimus Spotted croaker Cabeça dura/Corvina Sciaenidae 12 656 Occasional
Unidentified catfish - Bagre não identificado Ariidae 12 1,174 Occasional
Strongylura timucu Timucu Agulhão Belonidae 11 632 Occasional
Caranx latus Horse-eye jack Xaréu Carangidae 9 239 Occasional
Anisotremus virginicus Porkfish Pirambu/Sargo Haemulidae 8 2,904 Occasional
Hyporhamphus unifasciatus Common halfbeak Agulhinha/Farnangaio Hemiramphidae 8 204 Occasional
Lycengraulis grossidens Atlantic sabretooth Sardinha xangó/Manjuba Engraulidae 8 232 Occasional
anchovy
191
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Table 2. Continued.
Species Common name Common name Family Total Total Frequency of
in English in Portuguese number weight (g) occurrence
Anisotremus surinamensis Black margate Pirambu/Sargo Haemulidae 7 927 Occasional
Paralonchurus brasiliensis Banded croaker Riscadinho Sciaenidae 7 630 Occasional
Albula vulpes Bonefish Ubarana/Ubarana rato Albulidae 5 1,565 Occasional
Centropomus undecimalis Common snook Robalo Centropomidae 5 2,655 Occasional
Engraulidae Engraulid Arenque/Sardinha Engraulidae 4 66 Occasional
Harengula clupeola False herring Sardinha cascuda Engraulidae 4 39 Occasional
Caranx crysos Blue runner Cabeçudo/Guaricema Carangidae 3 4 Occasional
Cetengraulis edentulus Atlantic anchoveta Sardinha maçambê Engraulidae 3 51 Occasional
Chilomycterus spinosus - Baiacu espinho Diodontidae 3 54 Occasional
Chloroscombrus chrysurus Atlantic bumper Garapau Carangidae 3 37 Occasional
Oligoplites saurus Leatherjacket Guaibira/Guiavira Carangidae 3 175 Occasional
Selene vomer Lookdown Peixe galo Carangidae 3 533 Occasional
Stellifer rastrifer Rake stardrum Mirucaia Sciaenidae 3 52 Occasional
Unidentified fish Unidentified fish Piramboca Unidentified 3 120 Occasional
Diplectrum radiale Pond perch Margarida Serranidae 2 69 Occasional
Genyatremus luteus Torroto grunt Sauara Haemulidae 2 1,030 Occasional
Lutjanus synagris Lane snapper Ariocó Lutjanidae 2 325 Occasional
Ophichthus cylindroideus Dusky snake eel Mututuca Ophichthidae 2 275 Occasional
Parrella macropteryx - Blênio Gobiidae 2 20 Occasional
Unidentified catfish Unidentified catfish Bagre chibungo Ariidae 1 1,106 Occasional
Bairdiella ronchus Ground croaker Mirucaia Sciaenidae 1 30 Occasional
Centropomus sp. Snook Robalo Centropomidae 1 665 Occasional
Dasyatidae Ray Arraia Dasyatidae 1 1,410 Occasional
Diapterus rhombeus Caitipa mojarra Carapeba Gerreidae 1 44 Occasional
Lagocephalus lagocephalus Oceanic puffer Baiacu ará Tetraodontidae 1 865 Occasional
Larimus breviceps Shorthead drum Boca torta Sciaenidae 1 70 Occasional
Opisthonema oglinum Atlantic thread herring Sardinha maçambê Clupeidae 1 5 Occasional
Total - - - 10,026 359,516 -
We present here detailed information for two
highly frequent species, M. littoralis and P. vir-
ginicus, which were also studied in the state of
Sergipe, for comparison purposes. Frequency dis-
tribution of total length for M. littoralis indicated
that 86% of the specimens were below the maturi-
ty size available in the literature (Figure 4). It was
not possible to estimate the maturity curve for this
species using our local data. There was no statisti-
cally significant difference in mean total length
between 2007 and 2008 for M. littoralis (t =
0.969; p = 0.33). Size at first maturity estimated in
this study for females P. virginicus was 22.1 cm
TL (Figure 5). A proportion of 80% of the sampled
specimens were below the maturity size (Figure
6). Similarly, no statistically significant difference
was observed in mean total length between 2007
and 2008 for P. virginicus (t = 0.089; p = 0.93).
Cluster analysis grouped sampling sites into
three groups independently of the time of the
year: one group made up of beaches located in
southern Ilhéus (Praia de Acuípe and Praia de
Lençóis); one group of beaches in northern Ilhéus
(Condomínio Japará, Pé da Serra, and Falafina);
and one final group of beaches located downtown
(Praia do Espigão, Praia da Avenida, and Praia
dos Milionários) (Figure 7). Even though Praia de
São Miguel is not properly located in downtown
Ilheús, it presented similar catch composition.
These three groups had in common a high num-
ber of C. spixii, M. littoralis, and T. goodei. How-
ever, C. spixii was more abundant downtown and
T. goodei in the north. Menticirrhus littoralis was
equally abundant in events occurring along the
entire coast. Additional differences were a high
predominance of E. melanopterus downtown and
P. virginicus in the south. Praia do Cristo was
included in a separated group as it was character-
ized by the dominance of E. argenteus, followed
by A. brasiliensis, in an estuarine area.
Profile of the recreational fishers
A total of 57 recreational fishers were inter-
viewed during the CLUPESIL Championship
and thus included most of the active members of
this fishing club at that time, as the club had 54
and 67 active members in 2007 and 2008,
respectively. Currently, CLUPESIL has 60
active members. Most of these fishers were men
(75%) and their age ranged between 7 and 70
years, with the majority of them being 36-54
years old (46%) (Figure 8). Most of the fishers
were vendors (12 fishers), students (9), retired
192
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
Figure 4. Frequency distribution of total length for Menticirrhus littoralis caught in competitive fishing events promoted by
CLUPESIL in Ilhéus, southern Bahia (2007-2008). Dashed vertical line indicates mean size at first maturity (Braun and
Fontoura 2004).
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Absolute frequency
Total length (cm)
810121416182022242628303234
n 192=
men/women (6), dentists and technicians (4
each), or public servants (3), followed by teach-
ers, accountants, receptionists, desk assistants,
lawyers and wall painters (2 each), and doctor,
nurse, unemployed, bank officer, nursing assis-
tant, administrative assistant, and port employee
(1 each). Most cited monthly wages were 2-5
(39%) and 6-10 minimum wages (23%) (Figure
9). All fishers older than 18 years old had a fish-
ing license, as it was (and still is) a requirement
to participate in the CLUPESIL Championship.
Younger fishers are not obliged to carry license
(unless desiring to have a catch quota), but those
older than 65 have to carry the license even
193
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Figure 5. Mean size at first maturity for Polydactylus virginicus (TL
m
= 22.1 cm) estimated on specimens caught in competitive
fishing events in Ilhéus, southern Bahia (2007-2008). % mature includes maturity stages: II – developing, III – ripe, and
IV – post-spawning (Vazzoler 2006).
Figure 6. Frequency distribution of total length for Polydactylus virginicus caught in competitive fishing events in Ilhéus, south-
ern Bahia (2007-2008). Dashed vertical line indicates mean size at first maturity estimated from Figure 5.
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Absolute frequency
Total length (cm)
810121416182022242628303234
n1= 33
6
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
% mature
Total length (cm)
0
5
10 15 20 25 30 35
though they do not have to pay for it, according
to the national regulation. Most of the fishers
enjoyed fishing during both competitive events
and outside events (38%), followed by those
who liked only competitive events (32%) or no
competitions at all (30%).
Recreational fishers employed line with mean
thickness of 0.26 mm (0.10-0.40 mm) during
competitive fishing events, which was thinner
than the line used outside competitive events
(mean = 0.37 mm; 0.10-0.90 mm). Hooks used
outside competitive events were also larger in
194
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
Figure 8. Age of recreational fishers affiliated to CLUPESIL based on 57 questionnaires answered in 2008 (Ilhéus, southern
Bahia).
Figure 7. Dendrogram showing similarity of beaches in Ilhéus, southern Bahia, according to their fish species composition (as
caught in competitive fishing events in 2007-2008). Letters indicate beaches: PC (Praia do Cristo), PEs (Praia do
Espigão), PA (Praia da Avenida), VM (Praia dos Velhos Marinheiros), PS (Pé de Serra), PEc (Pousada Ecológica), FA
(Falafina), SM (Praia de São Miguel), PL (Praia de Lencóis), AC (Acuípe), and CJ (Condomínio Japará). First number
indicates month and second number, year. Thus: AC11_7 = Acuípe in November 2007. Horizontal continuous line is the
cut limit indicating the uniqueness of Praia do Cristo, southern beaches (AC, PL), northern beaches (CJ, PS, FA), and
downtown beaches (PA, VM, PEs). São Miguel (SM) is located near downtown beaches and presents similar features in
terms of species composition. Ovals indicate outliers.
PC5_7
AC6_8
AC11_7
AC11_8
PL9_7
PL7_8
PEs9_8
VM3_7
CJ5_7
PS7_7
PEc3_7
FA4_8
FA4_7
PA3_8
VM10_8
SM8_8
PEs10_7
Samples
Similarity
0
20
40
60
80
100
average, but a wider selection of sizes was used
(Figure 10). These results were aligned with the
objective of fishers during competitive events:
catch many fishes (55%), leisure (31%), catch
large fishes (11%), or catch certain species (3%).
Most of the recreational fishers cited the use of
spinning reel (67%), spinning reel or reel (23%),
and only reel (10%) during fishing activities. The
most common bait was shrimp, which was used
by 100% of the interviewed fishers. In addition,
ghost shrimp or ‘corrupto’ (Crustacea, Stom-
atopoda; 12%), fish pieces (3%), and crab
‘grauçá’, Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787)
(Crustacea, Decapoda; 3%) were used in different
proportions. Several preferred fishing grounds
(during competitions or not) were cited by inter-
viewed recreational fishers, but most of them
mentioned Acuípe (in the south; 16%) and south-
ern beaches in general (from Opaba Hotel to
Cururupe River; 13%) (Figure 11). They usually
did not show preference for fishing in particular
months (60%), but preferred to go fishing in the
morning (74%) and during weekends (77%).
Outside competitive events, a total of 49% of
the interviewed recreational fishers declared eat-
ing their catch, 40% eating or donating it, and
11% donating it. In terms of catch-and-release
habits, 95% of them released small fishes, but
also catfishes (Ariidae; 9%), pufferfishes
(Tetraodontiformes; 2%), and A. brasiliensis
(2%). Only a small proportion (2%) declared not
practicing catch-and-release at all. A proportion
of 43% of the interviewed fishers learned how to
fish with their father, 21% with friends, and 15%
were self-taught. The remaining fishers learned
either with their husband, brother, grandfather,
boss, mother, or father-in-law. However, most of
them went fishing mainly with friends (36%),
father (15%), son (12%), or alone (12%), but also
with their wife, husband, brother, mother, or fam-
ily in general.
Recreational fishers had between 0 and 55
years of fishing experience but had been taking
part in competitive fishing events for 0 to 34
years (Figure 12). Most of them had 0-10 years of
fishing experience at that time (33%) and the
same amount of time taking part in competitive
events (58%). A high proportion of fishers stated
that the main existing problem for recreational
fisheries was shrimp trawling (49%; note some
fishers mentioned more than one problem), which
occurs very close to the coastline and contributes
195
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Figure 9. Monthly wage (in number of minimum wages) of recreational fishers affiliated to CLUPESIL based on 57 question-
naires answered in 2008 (NAp = not applicable; NAn = not answered). Minimum wage in 2008: R$ 415.00 ( USD
226.00).
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 2-5 6-10 11-20 > 20
NAn
Relative frequency (%)
Monthly wage
NAp
196
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
Figure 10. Standard hook size (mm) used during an interview with 57 recreational fishers from CLUPESIL in 2008 (A); hook
size that these fishers declared to use during competitive fishing events (white columns) and outside competitive events
(gray columns) (B). Each fisher could choose more than one hook size.
Figure 11. Preferred fishing ground declared by 57 recreational fishers affiliated to CLUPESIL in 2008 (Ilhéus, southern Bahia).
S, D, and N correspond to southern, downtown, and northern beaches, respectively.
to decreasing fish abundance. On the other hand,
34% of them did not perceive any problems in
recreational fisheries. Other problems mentioned
were: pollution (7%), capture of small fish (5%),
and low fish abundance, ‘calão’ fishery, and
retreat of sea level (2% each).
DISCUSSION
Competitive fishing events and ichthyofauna
Our study allowed, for the first time, the iden-
tification of the catch composition of shore-
based fishing competition events in the state of
Bahia, indicating a typical surf zone ichthyofau-
na. The 47 species caught in competitive events
in Ilhéus represent a much higher number than
the 28 species reported by Freire et al. (2017) for
the state of Sergipe, the only known published
study that analyzed the species composition of
shore-based competitive events in northeastern
Brazil. This follows the general fish species
composition along the coast of these states as
presented by Froese and Pauly (2019), with
higher diversity reported for the state of Bahia
than for Sergipe. No reports of detailed species
composition for onshore competitive events in
higher latitudes of Brazil were found. However,
for Argentina, one can notice an even lower
number of species caught (12 species) as expect-
ed, with Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830)
and Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823)
accounting for 80% of the catch (Llompart et al.
2012). These two species are also caught by
recreational fishers during onshore daily fishing
activities in southern Brazil (Peres and Klippel
2005), together with at least nine other species
that are also caught in Ilhéus (M. littoralis, G.
genidens, A. brasiliensis, Harengula clupeola
(Cuvier, 1829), Centropomus undecimalis
(Bloch, 1792), Caranx crysos (Mitchill, 1815),
T. goodei, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Stein-
dachner, 1875), and Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan,
1889). There is also overlapping between
species/genera caught in competitive events
onshore in Ilhéus (shore-based) and in Guaratu-
ba Bay (boat-based): Larimus breviceps Cuvier,
1830, Genyatremus luteus (Bloch, 1790),
Diplectrum spp., Menticirrhus spp., Stellifer
spp., Eucinostomus spp., Selene spp., Centropo-
mus spp., Oligoplites spp., and Caranx spp.
(Henke and Chaves 2017). Considering that
many of these species are also caught in com-
mercial fisheries, it would be important to start
197
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Figure 12. Fishing experience up to 2008 informed by 57 recreational fishers from CLUPESIL (Ilheús, southern Bahia): in gen-
eral (gray columns) and in competitive fishing events (white columns).
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0-10
Relative frequency (%)
Fishing experience (years)
10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60
reporting recreational catches together with
commercial catches in national bulletins.
Many factors could have led to the formation
of three groups of beaches in the cluster analysis
performed here based on their catch composition
(north, south, and downtown). Praia do Espigão,
Praia da Avenida, and Praia dos Milionários are
three beaches representing a continuum located
downtown and, as such, were expected to have
similar catch composition. This area has been
experiencing retreat of the sea level and expan-
sion of the coastal line after the construction of
the Malhado Port finalized in 1971 (Franco et al.
2006). In this region, the direction of the long-
shore drift is northwards. Retreat of the sea level
was one of the reasons for concern stated by one
of the fishers interviewed. Praia de São Miguel
was also included in this group. Even though this
beach is not part of this continuum, being located
northwards from Malhado Port, it was included in
the downtown group. In this specific area, the
longshore drift is reversed, flowing southwards
(Nascimento et al. 2007), which could explain the
similarity in catch composition between Praia de
São Miguel and downtown beaches. This region
has also suffered strong erosion after the con-
struction of Malhado Port, and this process con-
tinues even after the installation of groins (Nasci-
mento and Lavenère-Wanderley 2006). The dis-
charge of Almada and Cachoeira rivers may con-
tribute to differences in catch composition in the
north and south, in relation to the downtown area,
as these are the two main rivers occurring in the
region (Moraes et al. 2009). However, no study
was found on local abundance of fish species in
such low depth zones as studied here. Moraes et
al. (2009) analysed the local demersal fish com-
position between 10 and 20 m isobaths. About
50% of species found in these lower depth zones
were also found in their study, with four of them
included in their list of the top fourteen most
abundant species: P. virginicus, P. brasiliensis,
Chilomycterus spinosus (Linnaeus, 1758), and L.
breviceps.
One commonality between competitive fishing
events in Ilhéus (southern Bahia) and Sergipe is
the presence of one species of catfish, along with
M. littoralis and P. virginicus in the list of the
most abundant species in the catch. However, cat-
fish species differed between states, with C. spixii
dominating in southern Bahia and Sciades proops
(Valenciennes, 1840) in Sergipe. Indeed, Marce-
niuk (2005) reported the occurrence of C. spixii
along the Brazilian coast down to the state of
Paraná, but S. proops only down to the state of
Pernambuco. Freire et al. (2017) extended its
occurrence southwards to the state of Sergipe, but
this species does not seem to occur in Bahia.
Comparison with competitive fishing events in
other areas in the state of Bahia is not possible as
catches are not reported by species, but only total
catch in number and weight. However, reports
from commercial catches for the central coast of
Bahia indicated the presence of C. spixii, but not
S. proops (Soares et al. 2009).
In relation to M. littoralis and P. virginicus, it
was observed that specimens caught during shore-
based competitive fishing events in the state of
Bahia were smaller than those caught in Sergipe,
with a much higher proportion of immature spec-
imens. Some of the members of the CLUPESIL
were aware of this issue and had been discussing
the possibility of setting a minimum fish size.
This was finally set in March 2014 at 15 cm
(Vilma Souza, CLUPESIL, pers. comm.). How-
ever, a minimum size of 15 cm would still result
in a large proportion of immature specimens. The
fishing club ASPA-BV (Associação de Pesca
Amadora Bons Ventos) in the state of Sergipe has
been adopting a minimum size since 2008, but it
kept alternating between 15 and 20 cm throughout
the years (Freire et al. 2014). Since 2014, the min-
imum size in Sergipe has been set at 15 cm
(Rodrigo Melins, ASPA-BV, pers. comm.). Con-
sidering that M. littoralis and P. virginicus are
commercially caught in both states (Thomé-
Souza et al. 2014), it is important that a minimum
size is properly defined to protect local stocks.
198
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
The high number of small specimens is also
reflected in the general results presented, with a
mean weight of 39 g per fish (9-80 g). An
increasing trend in mean weight of fishes was
observed during the period of two years ana-
lyzed here but the reason behind this trend is
unknown. Freire (2005) found a decreasing trend
in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, but data
analyzed comprised 25 years. There, the
decreasing trend could indicate the impact of
fishing in the region (all types) and other
anthropic factors. But here, the study period was
too short (2007-2008) to allow for the observa-
tion of such impacts. Thus, mean weight should
be monitored through time to detect possible
impacts after taking into account the effect of
introducing a minimum size in 2014, as previ-
ously stated. Fishes caught in Ilhéus were much
lighter than those caught in competitive events
in Sergipe, where mean weight varied from 21 to
918 g (Freire et al. 2014). Some of the rules of
CLUPESIL Championship favored the capture
of a large number of small fishes due to the
pointing system adopted at that time (each fisher
received three points per fish caught or five
points for fishes larger than 15 cm, plus one
point per 100 g or fraction above 50 g).
Only one ray was caught in Ilhéus during two
years of competitive events in opposition to 18
caught in Sergipe during one year (Freire et al
2017). This reduced number may be related to the
local low occurrence of rays, as commercial
catches for rays in Ilhéus corresponded to only
0.3% of total catches (CEPENE 2007) when com-
pared to 1.5% in Sergipe (Thomé-Souza et al.
2014). As the only specimen caught in Ilhéus was
not identified to the species level, we were not
able to explore this issue further due to the lack of
knowledge on the depth distribution of this
unknown species. However, considering rays are
K-strategists with slow maturation process,
reduced progeny and long life cycle, and thus
more prone to overfishing, reduced catches of
rays are very positive.
Profile of the recreational fishers
As in other states in Brazil (Basaglia and Vieira
2005; Freire 2005; Chiappani 2006), there was a
predominance of men in coastal recreational fish-
eries in Ilhéus, mainly with ages between 40 and
50. The same pattern was also observed in off-
shore recreational fisheries in northeastern Brazil
(Freire et al. 2018). In terms of wages, they were
similar to the coastal recreational fishers in Rio
Grande do Sul (Basaglia and Vieira 2005), but
much lower than in the state of Sergipe (Freire et
al. 2017) and Espírito Santo (Chiappani 2006).
Both in Sergipe and Bahia, fishers tended to
use larger hooks when not participating in com-
petitive events. The most striking difference was
the tendency of fishers in Sergipe to use larger
hooks (Freire et al. 2017) than in southern Bahia,
which was reflected in the size of the caught
specimens, as seen above. Similarly to Sergipe
(Freire et al. 2017), shrimps were the main bait
used and a very low proportion of fishers
declared using ghost shrimps (Callichirus spp.).
Thus, ghost shrimps may be closer to their unex-
ploited status in the region of Sergipe-Bahia (see,
e.g., Rosa et al. 2018). In the state of Paraná, on
the other hand, there was an intense exploitation
of ghost shrimps as bait in recreational fisheries
(Souza and Borzone 2003). Even though they
were still used in 2017, their participation was
much lower than shrimps (Henke and Chaves
2017). In some areas of the state of São Paulo,
their exploitation status has already led to the pro-
hibition of their capture as early as 1992 (Pedruc-
ci and Borges 2009). In 2000, Law N. 1792/2000
also prohibited their catch in Itapema (state of
Santa Catarina).
The long term experience of recreational fish-
ers affiliated to CLUPESIL of up to 55 years
allowed them to point out some of the problems
affecting the sector in Ilhéus. Fishers attributed
most of the problems to shrimp trawling, a view
shared with fishers from the state of Sergipe,
together with lack of fishes, which may actually
199
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
be tightly linked to each other (Freire et al. 2017).
A large proportion of recreational fishers in
Ilhéus stated the habit of releasing small fishes.
However, this was not observed during competi-
tive events due to the pointing system that favors
the collection of small fishes. A minimum size
was established in March 2014, which has proba-
bly resulted in an increase of small fish release. In
Sergipe, the proportion of catch-and-release is
much smaller (Freire et al. 2017), probably asso-
ciated to the fact that fishers already use larger
hooks and have the habit of consuming their
catch, as observed in other regions in Brazil
(Freire et al. 2016).
As seen here, the profile of recreational fishers
in Ilhéus is similar to other regions but some fish-
ing habits in competitive events indicated a ten-
dency towards catching very small fishes. Even
though a minimum catch size of 15 cm was more
recently introduced, this may not be enough to
protect juveniles of some species of commercial
interest. Increasing to 20 cm may be better suited
considering the presence of a large proportion of
juveniles from some of the top-ten species caught
in competitive events, which are also of commer-
cial interest. This could be accomplished by
using larger hooks. The effect of these measures
should be closely monitored considering the
absence of studies on hook size selectivity and
post-release mortality for most of these species,
particularly in this region. Events that took place
in downtown Ilhéus led to the capture of speci-
mens with the lowest mean individual weight.
We suggest that these beaches be removed from
the annual circuit.
The information presented here is expected to
serve as a baseline to assess changes through time
in the catch composition of competitive fishing
events in Ilhéus and in the mean size of fishes
caught. Many factors could have affected the
results presented here, such as local temperature
and salinity, time of the day that fishing events
took place, and category of these events (with
one, two or three participants), but this may
require a longer study period for all these vari-
ables to be elucidated. We hope this study will
trigger future efforts to answer these questions
and also to update the profile of recreational fish-
ers on key issues such as license acquisition,
catch-and-release habits, changes in hook sizes
and baits used, and gender disparity of fishers and
their age structure, which could indicate if there is
a trend (or not) of younger generations in not get-
ting involved with recreational fishing. Finally,
studies on hook size selectivity are strongly
encouraged to assess the effect of the minimum
size introduced and any proposed changes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to thank the Clube de Pesca de
Ilhéus (CLUPESIL) and its recreational fishers
for allowing access to fishes caught in competi-
tive fishing events, particularly to R. Mendonça
and C.J.G. Almeida. M.F. Rhem identified all
species caught by common names. R. Melins, V.
Souza, and F. Gomes clarified issues related to
recreational fisheries in Sergipe and Bahia during
the production of this manuscript. L.C. da Rosa
prepared the map of the study area. This work
was supported by the National Council for the
Scientific and Technological Development –
CNPq (Edital Universal #478422/2006-7).
REFERENCES
A
RLINGHAUS R, AAS Ø, ALÓS J, ARISMENDI I,
B
OWER S, CARLE S, CZARKOWSKI T, FREIRE
KMF, HU J, HUNT LM, LYACH R, et al. 2020.
Global participation in and public attitudes
toward recreational fishing: international per-
spectives and developments. Rev Fish Sci
Aquac. 1-38. doi:10.1080/23308249.2020.
1782340
200
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
BASAGLIA TP, VIEIRA JP. 2005. A pesca amadora
recreativa de caniço na Praia do Cassino,
RS: necessidade de informações ecológicas
aliadas à espécie alvo. Braz J Aquat Sci
Technol. 9 (1): 25-29.
B
RAUN AS, FONTOURA NF. 2004. Reproductive
biology of Menticirrhus littoralis in southern
Brazil (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Sci-
aenidae). Neotrop Ichthyol. 2 (1): 31-36.
[CEPENE] C
ENTRO DE PESQUISA E GESTÃO DE
RECURSOS PESQUEIROS DO LITORAL NORDES-
TE. 2007. Boletim estatístico da pesca marí-
tima e estuarina do nordeste do Brasil -
2005. Tamandaré: Centro de Pesquisa e Ges-
tão de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Nor-
deste. 79 p.
C
HIAPPANI LHB. 2006. Caracterização e avalia-
ção da atividade de pesca amadora na praia
de Camburi, Vitória - ES [undergraduate the-
sis]. Vitória: Departamento de Ecologia e
Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal do
Espírito Santo. 50 p.
C
ISNEROS-MONTEMAYOR AM, SUMAILA UR.
2010. A global estimate of benefits from
ecosystem-based marine recreation: poten-
tial impacts and implications for manage-
ment. J Bioecon. 12 (3): 245-268.
C
OATES D. 1995. Inland capture fisheries and
enhancement: status, constraints and
prospects for food security, Kyoto, Japan
KC/FI/95/TECH/3. Rome: FAO. 82 p.
C
OLEMAN FC, FIGUEIRA WF, UELAND JS, CROW-
DER LB. 2004. The impact of United States
recreational fisheries on marine fish popula-
tions. Science. 305 (5692): 1958-1960.
C
OOKE SJ, COWX IG. 2004. The role of recre-
ational fishing in global fish crises. Bio-
Science. 54 (9): 857-859.
[FAO] F
OOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF
THE
UNITED NATIONS. 2018. The state of
world fisheries and aquaculture 2018 - Meet-
ing the sustainable development goals.
Roma: Food and Agriculture Organization.
210 p.
FEDLER AJ, DITTON RB. 1994. Understanding
angler motivations in fisheries management.
Fisheries. 19 (4): 6-13.
F
IGUEIREDO JL, MENEZES NA. 1978. Manual de
peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. II.
Teleostei (1). São Paulo, Brazil: Museu de
Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. 110 p.
F
IGUEIREDO JL, MENEZES NA. 1980. Manual de
peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. III.
Teleostei (2). São Paulo, Brazil: Museu de
Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. 90 p.
F
IGUEIREDO JL, MENEZES NA. 2000. Manual de
peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. VI.
Teleostei (5). São Paulo, Brazil: Museu de
Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. 116 p.
F
RANCO GB, LAVENÈRE-WANDERLEY AAO,
M
OREAU MS. 2006. Estudo comparativo da
batimetria (1941-1976) da Baía do Pontal,
em Ilhéus - Bahia. Cam Geogr. 7 (18): 37-
46.
F
REIRE KMF. 2005. Recreational fisheries of
northeastern Brazil: inferences from data
provided by anglers. In: K
RUSE GH, GALLUC-
CI VF, HAY DE, PERRY RI, PETERMAN RM,
S
HIRLEY TC, SPENCER PD, WILSON B, WOOD-
BY D, editors. Fisheries assessment and man-
agement in data-limited situations. Fair-
banks: University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alas-
ka Sea Grant College Program. p. 377-394.
F
REIRE KMF. 2010. Unregulated catches from
recreational fisheries off northeastern Brazil.
Atlântica. 32 (1): 87-93.
F
REIRE KMF, BELHABIB D, ESPEDIDO JC, HOOD L,
K
LEISNER KM, LAM VWL, MACHADO ML,
M
ENDONÇA JT, MEEUWIG JJ, MORO PS, et al.
2020. Estimating global catches of marine
recreational fisheries. Front Mar Sci. 7 (12):
1-18.
F
REIRE KMF, BISPO MCS, LUZ RMCA. 2014.
Competitive marine fishery in the state of
Sergipe. Actapesca. 2 (1): 59-72.
F
REIRE KMF, LUZ RMCA, SANTOS ACG, OLIVEI-
RA CS. 2017. Analysis of the onshore com-
petitive recreational fishery in Sergipe. B
201
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA
Inst Pesca. 43 (4): 487-501.
F
REIRE KMF, SUMAILA UR, PAULY D, ADELINO G.
2018. The offshore recreational fisheries of
northeastern Brazil. Lat Am J Aquat Res. 46
(4): 765-778.
F
REIRE KMF, TUBINO RA, MONTEIRO-NETO C,
A
NDRADE-TUBINO MF, BELRUSS CG, TOMÁS
ARG, TUTUI SLS, CASTRO PMG, MARUYA-
MA LS, CATELLA AC, et al. 2016. Brazilian
recreational fisheries: current status, chal-
lenges and future direction. Fish Manage
Ecol. 23: 276-290.
F
ROESE R, PAULY D. 2019. FishBase. Version
12/2019; [accessed 2020 January]. http://
www.fishbase.org.
G
ENTNER B, LOWTHER A. 2002. Evaluating
marine sport fisheries in the USA. In: P
ITCH-
ER TJ, HOLLINGWORTH CE, editors. Recre-
ational fisheries: ecological, economic and
social evaluation. Oxford: Blackwell Sci-
ence Ltd. p. 186-206.
H
ENKE JL, CHAVES PTC. 2017. Ictiofauna e pesca
amadora no litoral sul do Paraná: estudo de
caso sobre capturas e potencial impacto.
Braz J Aquat Sci Technol. 21 (1): 37-43.
K
ERR SJ, KAMKE KK. 2003. Competitive fishing
in freshwaters of North America: a survey of
Canadian and U.S. Jurisdictions. Fisheries.
28 (3): 26-31.
K
REBS CJ. 1999. Ecological methodology. Menlo
Park: Benjamin/Cummings. 620 p.
L
LOMPART FM, COLAUTTI DC, BAIGÚN CRM.
2012. Assessment of a major shore-based
marine recreational fishery in the southwest
Atlantic, Argentina. New Zeal J Mar Fresh.
46 (1): 57-70.
M
ARCENIUK A. 2005. Chave para identificação
das espécies de bagres marinhos (Silurifor-
mes, Ariidae) da costa brasileira. B Inst
Pesca. 31 (2): 89-101.
M
ENEZES NA, FIGUEIREDO JL. 1980. Manual de
peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. IV-
Teleostei (3). São Paulo, Brazil: Museu de
Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. 96 p.
MENEZES NA, FIGUEIREDO JL. 1985. Manual de
peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. V-
Teleostei (4). São Paulo, Brazil: Museu de
Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. 105 p.
M
ORAES LE, ROMERO RM, ROCHA GRA, MOURA
RL. 2009. Demersal ichthyofauna of the
inner continental shelf off Ilhéus, Bahia,
Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 9 (4): 163-168.
M
OURATO BL, HAZIN H, HAZIN F, CARVALHO F,
A
MORIM AF. 2016. Assessing Atlantic sail-
fish catch rates based on Brazilian sport fish-
ing tournaments (1996-2014). Bol Inst
Pesca. 42: 625-634.
M
OURATO BL, MALAVASI-BRUNO CE, DANTAS-
A
LBERTO M, HAZIN FHV, PIMENTA EG, AMO-
RIM AF. 2019. Bayesian generalized linear
models for standardization of white marlin
(Kajikia albida) catch rates based on Brazil-
ian sport fishing tournaments (1996-2017) in
the Southwestern Atlantic. Collect Vol Sci
Pap ICAAT. 76: 59-70.
N
ASCIMENTO L, BITTENCOURT ACSP, SANTOS AN,
D
OMINGUEZ JML. 2007. Deriva litorânea ao
longo da Costa do Cacau, Bahia: repercus-
sões na geomorfologia costeira. Rev Pesq
Geo. 34 (2): 45-56.
N
ASCIMENTO L, LAVENÈRE-WANDERLEY AAO.
2006. Effect of shore protection structures
(groins) on São Miguel Beach, Ilhéus Bahia
Brazil. J Coast Res. SI 39: 858-862.
N
UNES JACC, MEDEIROS DV, REIS-FILHO JA,
S
AMPAIO CLS, BARROS F. 2012. Reef fishes
captured by recreational spearfishing on
reefs of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. Biota
Neotrop. 12 (1): 179-185.
P
EDRUCCI ACC, BORGES RP. 2009. Determinação
de densidade populacional de Callichirus
major na Praia de José Menino – Santos e
Itararé – São Vicente. Rev Ceciliana. 1 (2):
121-125.
P
ERES MB, KLIPPEL S. 2005. A pesca amadora na
costa da plataforma sul. In: V
OOREN CM,
K
LIPPEL S, editors. Ações para a conservação
de tubarões e raias no sul do Brasil. Porto
202
MARINE AND FISHERY SCIENCES 33 (2): 183-203 (2020)
Alegre: Igaré. p. 200-212.
R
OSA LC, FREIRE KMF, SOUZA MJM. 2018. Spa-
tial distribution and population dynamics of
Callichirus major (Crustacea, Callianassi-
dae) in a tropical sandy beach, northeastern
Brazil. Invertebr Biol. 137: 308-318.
S
CHRAMM HL JR, ARMSTRONG ML, FUNICELLI
NA, GREEN DM, LEE DP, MANNS RE JR,
T
AUBERT BD, WATERS SJ. 1991. The status of
competitive sport fishing in North America.
Fisheries. 16 (3): 4-12.
S
OARES LSH, SALLES ACR, LOPEZ JP, MUTO EY,
G
IANNINI R. 2009. Pesca e produção pes-
queira. In: H
ATJE V, ANDRADE JB, editors.
Baía de Todos os Santos: aspectos oceano-
gráficos. Salvador: EDUFBA. p. 157-206.
S
OUZA JRB, BORZONE CA. 2003. A extração de
corrupto, Callichirus major (Say) (Crustacea
Thalassinidea), para uso como isca em praias
do litoral do Paraná: as populações explora-
das. Rev Bras Zool. 20 (4): 625-630.
T
HOMÉ-SOUZA MJF, CARVALHO BLF, GARCIOV
FILHO EB, SILVA CO, DEDA MS, FÉLIX DCF,
S
ANTOS JC. 2014. Estatística pesqueira da
costa do estado de Sergipe e extremo norte
da Bahia 2013. São Cristóvão: Editora UFS.
108 p.
V
AZZOLER AEAM. 1996. Biologia da reprodução
de peixes teleósteos: teoria e prática. Marin-
gá, Paraná: Nupelia. 169 p.
203
FREIRE ET AL.: COMPETITIVE RECREATIONAL FISHERIES IN BAHIA